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  1. Forster, Reinhold, 1778, Observations Made During a Voyage Round the World, p 648. (Below, cited as RForster)
  2. Cook, II, p 660fn.
  3. Forster, George, 1777, A Voyage Round the World (2 vols.), II, p 560-561.(Below, cited as GForster)
  4. Banks, II, p 267.
  5. Cook, II, p 662-663.
  6. Ibid., p 664.
  7. Ibid., p 663.
  8. Ibid., p 665-668. The Portuguese may have landed goats when they discovered the place in 1501.
  9. RForster, 1982, Journal, IV, p 746, 641. Hoare, Michael., 1976, The Tactless Philosopher, Johann Reinhold Forster (1720-98), p 130-133. This chapter could not have been written without constant reference to Hoare's valuable biography and journal of Reinhold Forster. Many of the quotations are from his translations from the German of the Forsters' correspondence and journals. I am grateful to Michael Hoare of the Alexander Turnbull Library in Wellington, New Zealand, for his comments on my interpretation of the Forster family.
  10. Cook, II, p 669-671.
  11. Ibid., p 52fn., in November of 1772. That was a needless precaution, south of Cape Town, because Cook soon found that the icebergs would supply all the fresh water he wanted.
  12. Ibid., p 672.
  13. Ibid., p 673-675.
  14. Ibid., p 12; and muster list, p 874-877. Of the 118 who embarked, two were transferred to Adventure (p 187, 875; 47, 877), one disembarked outbound at the Cape (p 886), and five died (see #16). Of those returning, one was a stowaway at the Cape and eight boarded as passengers at St. Helena (Voyage, op. cit., p 556-557; RForster, 1982, Voyage, IV, p 732-733).
  15. Hoare, Michael E., editor, 1982, The Resolution Journal of Johann Reinhold Forster 1772-1775 (4 vols.), IV, p 769. Cook, II, p 953.
  16. George on death rates, in Voyages, op. cit., II, p 605. Actually, probably five of Resolution died. George forgot a drowning (Cook, II, p 32fn): a mysterious sailor eaten by a shark, not identified in the muster list. The number of deaths was therefore five: three drownings (p 32-33, 881; 595, 884), one illness (p 200, 884), and one accident (p 553, 881). But George's point is without reproach.
  17. On scurvy, see: Allison, R. S., 1943, Sea Diseases. Kodicek, Egon H., 1969, "Captain Cook and Scurvy," Notes and Records of the Royal Society, 24: p 43-63. Lind, James, 1753, A Treatise of the Scurvy: a bicentenary volume, edited by Stewart, C. P., and Douglas Guthrie, 1953. Lloyd, C., and J. L. S. Coulter, 1961, Medicine and the Navy, 1200-1900, 3: p 1714-1805. Watt, James, 1979, "Medical Aspects and Consequences of Cook's Voyages," in Fisher, Robin, and Hugh Johnston, Captain Cook and His Times. Watt, J., E. J. Freeman and W. F. Bynum, 1981, Starving Sailors: The Influences of Nutrition Upon Naval and Maritime History.
  18. Solander letters, Cook, II, p 957-959; Banks, I, p 108fn; Hoare, op. cit., 1975, p 153-154.
  19. Ibid., p 153-154, 51, 172, 130f.
  20. Ibid., p 151-157.
  21. Cook, II, p cxlii-cxlviii; Beaglehole, J C., 1974, The Life of Captain James Cook, p 462-467.
  22. Hoare, 1975, op. cit., p 139-140. RForster, 1982, Journal, IV, p 785.
  23. Edgar, Elizabeth, 1969, "Preface to 'Characteres Generum Plantarum,' by J.R. and G. Forster, 1776; a Translation," New Zealand Journal of Botany 7: p 311-315. St. John, Harold, 1971, "The Date of Publication of Forster's Characteres Generum Plantarum and its Relation to Contemporary Works," Le Naturaliste Canadien 98: p 561-581.
  24. Hoare, 1975, op. cit., p 157-159.
  25. Ibid., p 159-165, 341-342, 353-356, from the R Forster biblography.
  26. Ibid., p 182: Sandwich to Barrington, Hampton Court, June 11, 1776; transcript in "Correspondence relating to Dr. John Reinhold Forster, 1774-1779," John Willis Clark Collection, Add. 5104 (B), Cambridge University Library.
  27. Ibid., p 172, from Sandwich Papers; p 162. Cook, II, p clxvii.
  28. Hoare, 1975, op. cit., p 162, 169.
  29. Ibid., p 159, 163-165, 167-172. George's F.R.S., in Cook, II, p cliivfn.
  30. Hoare, 1976, op. cit., p 169. Cook, II, p cxliii-cxlvii.
  31. Hoare, 1976, op. cit., p 169-171, 175. Reinhold's letter to Banks, in Banks, I, p 109fn.
  32. Kahn, Robert L., 1958, "George Forster and Benjamin Franklin, "Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 102 (1): p 1-6. Kahn, 1955, "An Account of a Meeting with Benjamin Franklin at Passy on October 9, 1777: From George Forster's Journal," William and Mary Quarterly, 3rd Series 12 (3): p 472-474.
  33. Date of Banks' move: Carter, Harold B., 1979, "Cook's Oxford Tutor: Sir Joseph Banks and European Expansion in the Pacific Region, 1767-1820," p 18 (typescript); paper given at the James Cook Conference, April 26-29, 1978, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, British Columbia. Also, in Banks, I, p 114 (but 1776). Cook, II, 0 cli-clii. Hoare, 1976, op. cit., p 154, 173-183.
  34. Ibid., p 147-150, 183-184.
  35. Ibid., p 189-190, 136fn.
  36. Ibid., p 191, 166.
  37. Ibid., p 192-195.
  38. Ibid., p 195.
  39. Martha had occasion to meet one James Hackman, a former army lieutenant who became an ordained deacon, at a dinner party at Hinchingbrook, where, to Sandwich's chagrin, he promptly fell in love with her. Finding that she always declined his attentions, he waited for her outside Covent Garden with a brace of pistols on the night of April 7, 1779, intending to plead his case once more. When she emerged from the theater and was standing on the street with some friends, following a performance of "Love in a Village," he shot her in the head. She was aged thirty-four. Sandwich was working late at the Admiralty. On April 16 the twenty-seven year-old, love-starved deacon was tried at the Old Bailey, and on the 27th, accompanied by James Boswell, he was taken to the gallows at Tyburn, where he went to his reward. Hills, G. B., 1934-50, Boswell's Life of Johnson, III, p 383-384; Martelli, George, 1962, Jemmy Twitcher, A Life of the Fourth Earl of Sandwich, 1718-1792, Chapter 11, "Crime Passionel."
  40. Hoare, 1976, op. cit., p 196-197.
  41. Quoted in Bodi, L., "Captain Cook in German Imaginative Literature," p 127 in Veit, Walter, 1972, Captain James Cook: Image and Impact; from Goethe's Werke, IV, p 61-62 (1887-1920).
  42. Hoare, 1976, op. cit., p 186-188, 198-203. Forster, R., 1780, "Historia Aptenodytae, Generis Avium orbi Australi Proprii Auctore Io Reinoldo Forster LLD," Commentationes Societatis Regiae Scientiarium Gottingensis, III, Classis Physicae, III: p 121-138. Reinhold named the penguins: Aptenodytes chrysocome, A. patachonica, A. papua, A. autarctica, and A. magellanica.
  43. Hoare, 1976, op. cit., p 184-185.
  44. Ibid., p 203, 172-173. Forster, R., 1781, "Natural History of and Description of the Tyger-Cat of the Cape of Good Hope, 7 by John Reinhold Forster, LL.D., F.R.S., and A.S.," Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society 71 (1): p 1-6. (Felis capensis)
  45. Hoare, 1976, op. cit., p 213-214.
  46. Aulie, Richard P., 1961, "Caspar Friedrich Wolff and his 'Theoria Generationis,' 1759," Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences 16 (92): p 124-144.
  47. Hoare, 1976, op. cit., p 129, 185, 290fn, 229-230. Forster, R., 1778, "Beskrifning pa Djuret Yerbua Capensis, med Anmarkningar om Genus Yerbuae; af John Reinhold Forster," Kongl. Vetenskaps Academiens Handlingar (Taf. III), For ar 1778, XXXIX, Stockholm: p 108-119. (Now Dipus capensis)
  48. Hoare, 1976, op. cit., 210, 219, 217, 229, 230, 196, 223.
  49. Ibid., p 236-239, 144, 310, 230. Cook, II, p xlvi-xlvii; III, p ccv-ccvi. Hoare, Michael F., 1972, "A Strange and Eventful History: The Scientific Correspondence of J. R. Forster (1729-98)," Records of the Australian Academy of Science 2 (3): p 7-17.
  50. Hoare, 1976, op. cit., p 231-235, 237. For Banks's spending habits see: Banks, I, p 59, 75fn; Beaglehole, 1974, p 274fn; Cook, I, p cxxxvi, ccxlix.
  51. Herder, J. R., 1800, Outlines of a Philosophy of Man (London translation of 1784), p 153. Also in Smith, B., 1960, European Vision and the South Pacific, 1768-1950, p 64.
  52. Hoare, 1976, op. cit., p 248, 232.
  53. Ibid., p 247-248.
  54. For the Mozart connection, see Bodi, op. cit., p 121. Quote by George, in Jahn, Otto, 1882, Life of Mozart, II, p 354, from Forster, G., 1843, Samtliche Schriften (Leipzig) 7: p 257-277. Alas, George did not mention Mozart, who might have been in Prague preparing Don Giovanni.
  55. Hoare, 1976, op. cit., p 243, 262-263. Forster, R., 1785, "Mémoire sur les Albatros," Memoires de Mathematique et de Physique 10: p 563-572. He described and named 3 species: Diomedea albatros, D. chrystoma, and D. palpebrata.
  56. Hoare, 1976, op. cit., p 141, 262, 248-249, 142, 124.
  57. Ibid., p 285-286. Hoare, Michael E., 1969, "'Cook the Discoverer,' An Essay by Georg Forster, 1787," Records of the Australian Academy of Science 1 (4): p 7-16. Forster, George, editor and translator, 1787-1788, Des Capitaine Jakob Cook's Dritte Entdeckungsreise in das Stille Meer und nach dem Nordpolmit Schiffen Resolution und Discovery wahren der Jahre 1776 bis 1780, 2 vols., Berlin.
  58. Hoare, 1976, op. cit., p 221, 268, 269, 262-264, 266fn.
  59. Ibid., p 248, 250, 270, 265-270.
  60. Ibid., p 220-221, 304, 276, 141.
  61. Ibid., p 294, 274, 293, 271.
  62. Ibid., p 227.
  63. Veit, Walter, 1972, "Captain Cook and Comparative Literature"; Alan Frost, "Captain James Cook and the Early Romantic Imagination"; and Michael E. Hoare, "The Forsters and Cook's Second Voyage 1772-1775," in Veit, op. cit. For the influence of Cook in France, see Joppien, Rudiger, 1979, "The Artistic Bequest of Captain Cook's Voyages," in Fisher and Johnston, op. cit. Hoare, 1976, op. cit., p 278, 296.
  64. Ibid., p 297, 279-281, 283, 146, 290, 298-300.
  65. Ibid., p 301.
  66. Ibid., p 325, 321, 322, 307.
  67. Ibid., p 327-333, 170.
  68. Ibid., p 391, 353.
  69. Beaglehole, J. C., 1956, "On the Character of James Cook," Geographical Journal 122: p 422 in p 417-429.
  70. Von Humboldt, A., 1888, Cosmos II, p 72 (translation of the German of 1847). Ackerknecht, Erwin H., 1955, "George Forster, Alexander von Humboldt, and Ethnology," Isis 46 (2): p 83-95. See also Bruhns, Karl, 1873, Life of Alexander von Humboldt, I, p 17, 30, 83-94. Helmot de Terra, 1955, Humboldt.
  71. Hoare, 1969(#57 supra), op. cit., p 16. See also Bodi, L., 1959, "George Forster: The 'Pacific Expert' of Eighteenth Century Germany," Historical Studies Australia and New Zealand 8 (32): p 345-363.
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