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  1. Dalrymple, Alexander, 1771, An Historical Collection of the Several Voyages and Discoveries in the South Pacific Ocean, 2 vols., London: by the author; I: "The Dutch Voyages."
  2. Hoare, Michael E., 1982, The Resolution Journal of Johann Reinhold Forster, 5 vols., London: Hakluyt Society; vol. 3, p 463. Henceforth: RForster, Journal. Beaglehole, James C., editor, 1969, The Voyage of the Resolution and Adventure, 1772-1775, Cambridge: University Press (for the Hakluyt Society), Volume II of Beaglehole's Journals of Captain James Cook on his Voyages of Discovery - henceforth here referred to simply as: "Cook II"; the Wales story in Cook II, Wales: p 821, 822.
  3. Englert, Father Sebastian, 1970, Island at the Center of the World, New York: Scribner's, p 59.
  4. Cook II, p 342-348.
  5. Ibid., p 348. Cook inserted Pickersgill's report verbatim into his journal for 16 March 1774, p 340-342; and developed his own account from what he also learned from Wales, p 820-828; and from Reinhold, in RForster, Journal, II, p 468-474.
  6. Likely they began their walk at the archaeological site at Vinapu, at the southwest corner of the island, and proceeded northeast along the coast.
  7. Wales, Pickersgill, and Forster do not make clear just where they were along the southeast coast when they described these particular statues. Cook II, p 344-346, 824-826. RForster, Journal, III, p 469-472.
  8. Cook II, p 346-347; Wales: 826. The masonry platforms are called ahu; they were used as altars and for burial of the dead; the statues are called moai; Englert 1970, p 176, 180. Apparently the party did not go as far east as the quarry at the Rano Raraku volcano, which is famous in pictures of Easter Island today, where they would have seen statues in various stages of preparation. Wales saw the caps at the 'topnot' quarry on the hill Punapau.
  9. RForster, Journal III, p 473, 474.
  10. Forster, George, 1777, A Voyage round the World, in His Britannic Majesty's Sloop, Resolution, commanded by Capt. James Cook, during the Years 1772, 3, 4, and 5, By George Forster, F.R.S. Member of the Royal Academy of Madrid, and of the Society for promoting Natural Knowledge at Berlin, 2 vols., London: B. White, P. Elmily, G. Robinson, vol. I, p 577-583.
  11. Ibid., I, p 571. Cook II, p 349, 354-355, 339fn, 359-360. Cook, James, 1777, A Voyage towards the South Pole, and Round the World, performed in His Majesty's Ships the Resolution and Adventure, In the Years 1772, 1773, 1774, and 1775, written by James Cook, Commander of the Resolution, In which is included Captain Furneaux's Narrative of his Proceedings in the Adventures during the Separation of the Ships, London: W. Strahan, and T. Cadell in the Strand; volume I, p 278-280; vocabulary list in II, p 364. GForster, Voyage, I, p 571.
  12. He guessed right about the women; they were hidden in caves for the duration. But he therefore probably guessed wrong about the population, which might have been 2-4,000 souls. Cook II, p 350-351fn. Englert 1970, op. cit., p 30, 108.
  13. Cook II, p 351-353. Cook was well read in his Dalrymple, who, in 1771, II, p 113, 114, passed on this quaint item about giants.
  14. Heyerdahl, Thor, 1950, Kon-Tiki: Across the Pacific by Raft, translated by R. H. Lyon, Chicago: Rand McNally; 1952, American Indians in the Pacific, the theory behind the Kon-Tiki Expedition, London: G. Allen; 1958, Aku-Aku, the Secret of Easter Island, Chicago: Rand McNally; 1968, Sea Routes to Polynesia, Chicago: Rand McNally; 1974, Fatu-Hiva: Back to Nature, Garden City, New Jersey: Doubleday; and 1979, Early Man and the Ocean, A Search for the Beginnings of Navigation and Seaborne Civilizations, Garden City, New Jersey: Doubleday. Heyerdahl in 1968 and 1979 summarized and evaluated the controversial literature on this subject. Heyerdahl, Thor, and Edwin Ferdon, editors, 1961, Archaeology of Easter Island, Chicago: Rand McNally. Hornell, James, 1946, "How did the Sweet Potato Reach Oceania?", Journal of the Linnaean Society (Botany) 53: 41-62. For a contrasting view, see Peter Bellwood, 1978, The Polynesians, Prehistory of an Island People, New York: Thames & Hudson, on archaeology.
  15. Englert, op. cit., thought that at least some of the statues were toppled during the interval between the visits of Roggeveen and Cook, p 142.
  16. Cook II, p 348, 349, 354. RForster, Journal, III, p 476.
  17. Dalrymple 1779, I: "The Voyages of Mendaña and Quiros," p 60-72. Mendaña named the islands for the viceroy of Peru, Las Marquesas de Mendoza.
  18. Cook II, p 334. Because the ship's company had dined on roast leg of dog on more than one occasion in the past, Cook had no call to have scruples; GForster, Voyage, 1777, I, p 234-235; II, p 1-3. RForster, Journal, II, p 303-304.
  19. To calculate east-west distances between two meridians (which are not parallel), I use Bowditch, Nathaniel, 1975, American Practical Navigator, an Epitome of Navigation, Defense Mapping Agency, vol. II, Table 6, "Length of a Degree of Latitude and Longitude," which gives the length of a degree of longitude at the required latitude.
  20. Cook II, p 363-368, 374; Wales, p 829, 832-833.
  21. Cook II, p 373. 375. George's excursion in his: Voyage, II, p 23-28.
  22. Cook II, p 369. Beaglehole said the red feathers were: "Probably those of the Red-breasted Musk Parrot," Beaglehole in Cook II, p 382fn. Could these red feathers have come from the now-extinct Red-rumped Parrot Cyanoramphus zealandicus, that Reinhold Forster described? See R. Forster Journal, III, p 506 ftn; and John Latham, 1790, General Synopsis of Birds.
  23. RForster, Journal, III, p 488; also in GForster, Voyage, II, p 31. While the Forster bit of gossip is likely true, we need not suppose that Cook went around the world slapping sailors. Probably the fellow had it coming.
  24. Cook II, p 368. GForster, Voyage, II, p 35-37.
  25. I use Cook's reckoning, of 9O55'30" S and 139O8'40" W, for the anchorage at Taku Ata in the Marquesas Islands; and for Takaroa (on the approach to Tahiti), 14O37'30" S and 114O56' W; and for my method for calculating a diagonal distance I use the equation:
    Cos D = sin(Ly) x sin(Lx) + cos(Ly) x cos (Lx) x cos(DLo), in which D = diagonal distance in nautical miles; Ly = latitude of arrival; Lx = latitude of departure; and DLo = longitude of departure minus the longitude of arrival, to give me an approximation. From Turner, Merle B., 1986, Celestial for the Cruising Navigator, formula 9.7, page 174. Cook and Wales, reckoning here to seconds, were growing more confident.
  26. Cook II, p 378. RForster, Journal), III, p 493-495. Cook called them "half drowned isles" and the "dangerous Archipelago" on previous visit, in 1773; II, p 195.
  27. Cook II, p 381-385, 404, 411-412. RForster, Journal, III, p 496-497. GForster, Voyage, II, p 58. A question arises: how did the Polynesians acquire their taste for red feathers? Because the red feathers came from Tonga, does not this mean that the sea-faring merchants of the Marquesas and Society Islands travelled thither by ocean-going canoes? I think so. How did they get their red feathers save by going to get them? Using my method in #26 supra, I make the Marquesas (at 9O55'S, 139O8'W) to Tonga (at 20O23'S, 174O66'W) distance at about 2150 miles, and about 1770 miles from Tahiti (17O29'S, 149O36'W) to Tonga, goodly distances even for the talented Polynesian sea-farers in their splendid sea-going canoes. For light on how they might have done this, see: Lewis, David, 1975 (1972), We, the Havigators, the Ancient Art of Landfinding in the Pacific, Honolulu: University Press of Hawaii.
  28. Cook devoted considerable space to the fleet: II, p 384-387, 400-409. George put the figure in the fleet at 1,500 warriors and 4,000 paddlers, and the population of Tahiti at 120,000; Voyage, 1777, II, 65-66, 104-107. RForster, Journal, III, p 512-513.
  29. Cook II, p 387-390. Wales, in Cook II, p 836.
  30. Cook II, p 392-397, 837, quote: 398. RForster, Journal, III, p 508.
  31. RForster, Journal, III, p 500-502. GForster, Voyage, II, p 81-83; I, p 339-340.
  32. GForster, Voyage, II, p 57-58, 70-75, 83-84. Cook II, p 383fn, Wales: 430. Forster, Reinhold, 1778, Observations made during a Voyage Round the World, on Physical Geography, Natural History, and Ethic Philosophy. Especially on 1. The Earth and its Strata, 2. Water and the Ocean, 3. The Atmosphere, 4. The Changes of the Globe, 5. Organic Bodies, and 6. The Human Species.. , London, p 391-392.
  33. RForster, Journal, III, p 504, 505. Cook II, p 399, 405, 412. In 1769 Cook thought Obarea was about age forty; I, p 85. GForster, Voyage, II, 103. Beaglehole discusses the family of this remarkable lady; I, p clxxiv, clxxxiii-clxxxiv.
  34. RForster, Journal, III, p 509-510. GForster, Voyage, II, 90-91, 101, 102, 103, 134-136. Cook II, p 399-400.
  35. RForster, Journal, III, p 511-513. Cook included a detailed sheer draught plan and section of this impressive craft, probably drawn by Hodges, in his Voyage, 1777, I, plate xv, p 344. Cook II, p 402-403, quote: 404.
  36. Cook II, p 402-405, quote: 404. GForster, Voyage, II, p 102. RForster, Journal, III, p 510. Wales identified the lieutenant; Cook II, p 839.
  37. Ibid., p 413-414. GForster, Voyage, II, p 116. At Tahiti in 1769, in Cook I, p 127-128.
  38. Cook II, p 840. Wales's friend was David Garrick, prominent actor, producer, and dramatist in Samuel Johnson's London; Cook II, p 840. RForster, Journal, III, p 521.
  39. Cook II, p 414-417, quote: 417. RForster, Journal, III, p 518- 520. GForster, Voyage II, p 126.
  40. Cook, II, p 418.
  41. Ibid., p 419.
  42. Ibid., p 421-424. Wales's review is in Cook II, p 842-844. Beaglehole discusses the arioi in I, p clxxxvi-cxc; George Forster, in Voyage, II, p 128-137; quotes: 134, 136. RForster, Journal, III, p 522-524.
  43. Cook II, p 421-424. In the Endeavour journal Cook did not report Tupaia's expertise as an ornithologist. GForster, Voyage, 1777, II, 144-145, 148-158. RForster, Journal, III, p 526, 529-531.
  44. Cook II, p 428-429. GForster, Voyage, II, p 83, 159-161.
  45. Cook II, p 425-426. Beaglehole: Cook II, p 425fn.
  46. Ibid., p 426, 428. Wales: 838, 845. GForster, Voyage, II, p 529.
  47. GForster, Voyage, 1777, II, p 167. Cook II, quote: p 438.
  48. Cook keeps his reputation secure, in II, p 443-443; 444fn; Wales explains his absence, p 847.
  49. Cook II, p 446, 846. Kaeppler, Adrienne L., 1978, "Artificial Curiosities," an Exposition of Native Manufactures Collected on the Three Pacific Voyages of Captain James Cook, R.N. , Honolulu: Bishop Museum Press.
  50. For this section I refreshed myself with a perusal of Chapter 3, "A Wreck of a World," in John C. Greene, 1981 (1959), The Death of Adam, and its impact on western thought, Ames: Iowa State University Press; Chapter 7, "The Birth of Historical Geology With the Rise and Fall of Neptunian Theory," Chapter 10, "The Origin of Mountains," in Frank D. Adams, 1948, The Birth and Development of the Geological Sciences, New York: Dover Publications; Chapter 11, "The Worship of Nature," in Kenneth Clark, 1969, Civilization, A Personal View, New York: Harper and Row; and Chapters 1-3 of Charles Lyell, 1887, Principles of Geology, 11th edition, New York: D. Appleton.
  51. I take the founding of the Geological Society of London, in 1807, as the "beginning" of geology as a scientific discipline. The word "revolution" in the 18th century did not mean only a political upheaval; it also meant a large-scale geological change that might have been of catastrophic proportions and of short duration.
  52. This sentence refers to Jean Etienne Guettard, who in the 1750's pointed out that certain mountains in the Auverge were extinct volcanos - conical in shape and with a typical vent; and to Nicolas Desmarest who in the 1760's said the same for certain peaks in Italy, and who showed the relationship between basalt and lava.
  53. Basil Willey, 1961 (1940), The Eighteenth-Century Background, Studies on the Idea of Nature in the Thought of the Period, New York: Columbia University Press, is good for this line of thought, especially Chapter 1, "The Turn of the Century," and Chapter 2, "The Wisdom of God in the Creation."
  54. This sentence refers to the controversy between "Neptunism" and "Vulcanism" in the latter part of the eighteenth century. Reinhold Forster's work during the second voyage i.n a sense occurred on the eve of this important development in geology. See Charles P. Gillispie, 1959 (l996, 1951), Genesis and Geology, The Impact of Scientific Discoveries upon Religious Beliefs in the Decades before Darwin, New York: Harper Torchbooks. Chapter 2, "Neptune and the Flood," and Chapter 3, "From Vulcanism to Paleontology."
  55. GForster, 1777, Voyage, II, 193.
  56. Tofua is volcanic as Reinhold thought. "Lofia" is the name of the cone. The island is uninhabited and a recent eruption was in 1959. Courtesy, Geology Department, Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago.
  57. Cook II, p 263-264, 447-448. RForster, Journal, III, p 548-559. Any reader wishing to go farther with Polynesian canoes could hardly do better than with Haddon, Alfred C., and James Hornell, 1975 (1936-38), The Canoes of Oceania, 3 vols., Honolulu: Bishop Museum Press, which surely is the definitive work.
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