Home > 225 Years Ago: July - September 1773

10 January, 1769


On 1st July, 1773 James Cook, in the Resolution, and Tobias Furneaux, in the Adventure, were sailing east in the South Pacific Ocean looking for the fabled southern continent. The next day, according to Johann Forster in the former ship "The weather easy. Bore down towards the Adventure & fired two Guns at 11 o'clock at night." On the 5th he commented "the Easterly winds were the most prevailing ones. How long this breeze will last is not to be said. We long & wish it may be settled for a 14 night in that Quarter, that we may the sooner come as far as the Capt we suppose to go i.e between the two tracks he made last Voyage."

Two days later Cook "Loosed all the reefs out of the Topsails and got Topgt yards across. At 9 hoisted a Boat out to carry Mr Wales aboard the Adventure to compare the watches and which was found to agree, a proof that they have both kept to their rate of going sence we left Queen Charlottes Sound". Forster adds "Capt Furneaux dined with us."

On 9th he recorded "A very great & mountainous Swell from the South, which makes the Ship roll very much. In one of these deep rolls, a young goat born on board this Ship about the Tropics, had the misfortune to fall overboard from the booms, where he went in order to come at the Hay in the Longboat. He swam at first hard, we brought to & hoisted a boat out; but he was drowned before they could take him up." Two days later William Bayly, the astronomer on the Adventure, recorded "last night Mr Scott: the Lieutt of Marines seemed to be out of his mind, as he ran about Almost Naked talking a great deal of Incohearent stuff". James Scott was Second Lieutenant of Marines.

Away From Home For a Year

According to Forster, 13th July "is this day just a year, that we left Plymouth-Sound, & the Shores of England. May providence continue to guard us against Misfortunes & Accidents, & procure me opportunities to describe & discover many useful things in these Seas & the Lands therein, for the benefit of mankind in general, & especially Great Britain & to the Satisfaction of the great & benevolent Monarch, who ordered this expedition from principles of Humanity & may it recommand me more to those whom the greatest Monarch entrusted with the Administration of the State, & may I be enabled afterwards to pass the remainder of my Days in peace & retirement, among my worthy Friends, & those whom Nature has tied to me by indissoluble ties." The next day "altered at noon the course, & began to run towards N.E. so that having run down more than 220° East Longitude from Greenwich we now begin to move towards warmer Climates."

The next day, according to Cook, "First part fresh gales and gloomy weather. At 2 pm single reefed the Top-sails and presently after the Clew of the fore top-sail gave way which obliged us to unbend the sail and bring a nother to the yard... At 8 double reefed the Top sails and handed the Mizen Top-sail. The gale kept increasing in such a manner as to oblige us at 2 am to hand the Fore Top-sail and some time after the Main Topsail and to strike Top gallant yards, the Fore Top-mast stay-sail being split we unbent it and bent a nother."

By the 19th there were "gentle breezes with some Showers in the night... Carpenters employed painting the Boats, sail-makers repairing the Sails." Three days later Robert Cooper, first lieutenant on the Resolution, "punish'd John Keplin Seaman 1 dozen for throwing an old Chew of Tobacco amongst Victuals dressing, which infamous proceedings have frequently before been practiced by persons unknown."

Sickness Returns to Both Ships

On 23rd Furneaux wrote in his log "Departed this Life Murduck Mahony Ship's Cook" of the scurvy. He had, wrote James Burney, second Lieutenant of the Adventure, "been a long time bad". On the 27th he added "our people began to fall sick, the flux and the Scurvy made its appearance amongst us & the Sick list daily increased". When Forster went aboard on 29th he "found Capt Furneaux confined to his Cabin, with a Rheumatism in his Foot." According to Bayly there were 22 men on the sick list, "Mostly with Rumatic complaints; & two or three bad in the Scurvey." On Forster's ship they had "made constant use of the Greens at Queen Charlotes Sound, whereas the people on board the Adventure hardly used any Greens before our Arrival there; & it seems hardly knew them." Cooper recorded that "Captn Cook appointed Wm Chapman one of our Seamen, who is Aged & having lost the use of 2 of his fingers to be Cook of the Adventure".

Near Pitcairn Island?

On 2nd August, Charles Clerke second lieutenant on the Resolution, noted that they "reev'd small Tacks and Sheets to our Courses for ye convenience of working lighter and more readily during our stay in these fine weather Countries". Cook, "being in the Latitude of Pitcair[n]s Island discovered by Captain Carteret in 1767 we looked out for it but could see no thing excepting two Tropick birds". He considered the situation. "No discovery of importance can be made, some few Islands is all that can be expected while I remain within the Tropical Seas."

Two days later Forster wrote "a young bitch of the Terrier-kind taken in at the Cape, was covered by my Spaniel & had this night 10 young ones, one of which was dead. We had a young New-Zeeland Puppy, which immediately fell upon the dead Puppy & eat ravenously of it." Two days later "the boat was hoisted out & sent on board the Adventure from whence Capt. Furneaux came to dine with us with Mr Bailey." On board that ship, Burney noted, "the Number of Sick has increased to 28 who are all unable to do duty - this is more than a third of the Ship's Company."

On 10th, Forster noted "we allways shortened Sail at 6 o'clock in the Evening, brought to at 8 o'clock & the Adventure came not up before 9 o'clock: when she was passing by we made the Signal for bringing to on the starboard tack: for as we now were a breast of the small, low Isles discovered by the Endeavour, & Mr Bougainville, we supposed there might be likewise some to the northward of them, where we were sailing."

Amongst the Tuamotu Islands

The next day Cook recorded "At 6 o'Clock in the morning land was seen to the Southward, we soon discovered it to be an Island about 2 Leagues in extent NW & SE, low and cloathed with wood above which the Cocoa-nutts shew'd their lofty heads... The Scorbutic state of the Adventures Crew made it necessary for me to make the best of my way to Otaheite where I was sure of finding refreshments for them, concequently I did not wait to examine this Island which appear'd too small to supply our wants." It was Tauere, part of the Tuamotu Archipelago."

"We sailed on", wrote Forster "& in the Evening at ½ hour past 6 o'clock from the Masthead a little low Isle [Tekokoto], with a cluster of CocoNut-Trees on it, more than 5 leagues distant. We changed our course to the Northward, & as is supposed passed the Isle on our larboard side before 10 o'clock. At 5 o'clock in the morning every Soul in the Ship was alarmed by the Man on the Masthead, who saw breakers right a head about ¾ of a miles distance. The course was altered to the southward & we saw at day break plainly a low Island [Maurutea] with several Clusters of Trees on it, surrounded on its South & SW side by a reef extending from the Isle in the shape of half a moon & forming on the inside a large wide bason."

"We continued to advance to the West", wrote Cook, "all sails set till 6 o'Clock in the pm when we shorten'd sail to the three Top-sails, at 9 we brought too" because, adds Clerke "it being too dark to run when we had reason to apprehend ourselves in the neighbourhood of some of those confounded low Islands." In the morning Cook found they were off "a nother low Island bearing N½W distant 3 or 4 Leagues [Motutunga]". They sailed on and "at 5 o'Clock in the pm saw land... I judged it to be Chain Island [Anaa] discovered in my last Voyage."

The next day, 15th, "at 5 am saw Osnaburg Island [Mehetia] bearing SBW½W. At 9 o'Clock I sent for Captain Furneaux on board to acquaint him that I intended to put into Oaiti-peha Bay in the SE end of Otaheite in order to get what refreshment we could from that part of the Island before we went down to Matavai Bay."

Arrival at Tahiti

On 16th August, "At 6 PM saw the Island of Otaheite extending from WBS to WNW distant about 8 Leagues. We stood on till midnight then brought too till 4 o'Clock when we made sail in for the land. I had given directions in what possision the land was to be kept but by some mistake it was not properly attended to for when I got up at break of day I found we were steering a wrong course and were not more than half a league from the reef which guards the South end of the Island. I immidiately gave orders to haul off to the Northward and had the breeze of wind which we now had continued we should have gone clear of every thing, but the wind died away and at last flatened to a Calm. We then hoisted out our Boats but even with their assistance the Sloops could not be kept from nearing the reef".

On the Adventure, Furneaux wrote, "30 Men in the Sick List with the Scurvy". Burney added " we got our boats out & Sent to the Resolution for assistance. Captn Cook sent us 13 men who remained with us till the Ship was secured".

According to Wales there were "an incredible number of the Natives round the Ship in their boats all loaded with Cocoa-Nuts, Plantains, Apples and other fruits, which we purchased for Beads, nails, &c. It is impossible to express how agreeable these fruits are to us who had not tasted any thing of the kind since we left the Cape of Good Hope."

"About 2 o'clock in the PM" Cook continued, "we came before an opening in the reef by which I hoped to enter with the Sloops as our situation became more and more dangerous, but when I examined the natives about it they told me that the Water was not deep... it however caused such an indraught of the Tide as was very near proving fatal to both the Sloops, the Resolution especially, for... they were carried by it towards the reef at a great rate; the moment I perceived this I order'd one of the Warping Machines which we had in readiness to be carrid out with about 3 or 4 hundred fathoms of rope to it, this proved of no service to us... The horrors of ship-wreck now stared us in the face, we were not more than two Cables length from the breakers and yet could find no bottom to anchor, the only means we had left us to save the Ships; we however droped an anchor but before it took hold and brought us up, the Ship was in less than 3 fathom water... the Adventure anchored close to us on our starboard bow and happily did not touch." According to Wales "the two Ships riding along side of each other so near that a tolerable Plank would have reached from her Gunnel to ours."

Forster's and Cook's Characters

Forster "worked so hard at the Capstan & in pulling the ropes, when the longboat was hauled out, that I was quite faint: I could eat nothing & drank a great deal; in the hurry I once ran to clear the way for the Capstan-bars & wrenched my foot over some ropes; the pain from this Strain caused me a Swooning. This & the intense heat which amounted to 95°, caused me a Faintness".

Cook continued "we presently carried out a Kedge Anchor and a hawser and the Coasting Anchor with an 8 inch Hawser bent to it, by heaving upon these and cutting away the Bower Anchor we saved the Ship; by the time this was done the currant or Tide had ceased to act in the same direction and then I order'd all the Boats to try to tow off the Resolution, as soon as I saw it was practical we hove up the two small anchors. At that moment a very light air came of from the land which with the assistance of the Boats by 7 o'Clock gave us an offing of about 2 Miles". The Adventure "got under sail with the land wind, leaving behind her three anchors, her coasting Cable and two Hawsers".

Anders Sparrman, the botanist, "drew no small satisfaction from remarking the celerity and the lack of confusion with which each command was executed to save the ship... I should have preferred, however, to hear fewer 'Goddams' from the officers and particularly the Captain, who, while the danger lasted, stamped about the deck and grew hoarse with shouting." He distributed speaking-trumpets "to those officers who appeared to me most efficient in handling the vessel. They thanked me for my idea which... was the only active part I played on the operations... As soon as the ship was once more afloat, I went down to the Ward Room with Captain Cook who, although he had from beginning to end of the incident appeared perfectly alert and able, was suffering so greatly from his stomach that he was in a great sweat and could scarcely stand."

The night was "squally and rainy". The next morning both ships "stood in for Oaiti-peha Bay where we anchor'd about Noon in 12 fathom water about 2 Cables length from the shore and moor'd with our stream anchors", wrote Cook.

Michael Hoare in The Resolution Journal of Johann Reinhold Forster, 1772-1775, Hakluyt Society, 1982, records that "An expedition recovered some of the anchors in 1977-1978" lost by both ships.

Wales "enquired of Capt Cook about carrying on Shore my Observatory, and Instruments, who told me he should not Stop long here, and that it would not suit him to have a Guard on shore, without which I did not think it prudent to go my self, having already seen too much to think I was capable of guarding against such expert Thieves"

Orders Concerning Trade

According to Burney "The following Order concerning Trade was sent from the Commodore & Captain Furneaux, & a Copy delivered to the officers of both Ships & read to the Ships Company - 1st. To Endeavour by all proper means to cultivate a friendship with the Natives, by showing them every kind of civility & regard 2d. No Iron Tools, Nails large or Small, shall be given to the Natives in exchange for any thing but Provisions & Refreshments, as it has been found that these are the most valuable articles in their Eyes Art. 3d. The Exchanges on board, or alongside, the Ship, or at the Publick Market Place on shore (if any) Shall be under the inspection of one or more Commission or Warrant Officers, who shall from time to time appoint such other persons to trade or assist, as he or they shall find necessary - And no other Person or Persons but such as are so appointed and those comprehended in the 4th Article, Shall on any pretence whatever trade for any kind of Provisions & Refreshments: Nor shall any person be allowed to purchase any sort of curiosities, So long as provisions etc are wanting & on the Spot to be sold; but in case of failure thereof, and the same being notified by the officers superintending the Trade, every person shall be at liberty to purchase what he pleaseth, provided he complies with the 2d Article 4th Art. All detached parties either in boats or on Shore shall be allowed to Trade for provisions &c not only for their own consumption, but for the general Stock 5th. All provisions & other refreshments procured by any person whatever & not consumed on shore, shall be brought publickly on the Quarter Deck & afterwards distributed out in such a manner as circumstances shall make appear most equitable"

Death On Board the Resolution

On 18th, Joseph Gilbert, master of the Resolution, wrote "Dyed Isaac Taylor a Marine of a consumptive disorder having been unwell ever since we left England." He was buried at sea. After dinner, wrote Forster, "Capt Furneaux came on board & with him Capt Cook went a shore & I with them". The next morning Cook "detached the two Launches and the Resolutions Cutter under the command of Mr Gilbert to Endeavour to recover the Anchors we had lost, they return'd about noon with the Resolutions Bower Anchor but could not recover the Adventures. The Natives crowded about us as yesterday with fruits &ca but in no great quantity. I had also a party tradeing on shore under the Protection of a Guard, nothing however but fruit and roots were offered to us tho many Hogs were seen... they were constantly asking after Mr Banks and many others of the Gentlemen and people that were with me last voyage."

The next day, Forster reported that on his ship "the people are healthy except the Stewart, who has a scorbutic habit... The Adventure people are much better, & partly recovered; the Land has amazingly helped them, with the Quantity of fruit. I have described some fish, & birds & plants & some were drawn." According to Thomas Willis, midshipman on the Resolution, "ceas'd serving Bread, Pease, Wheat & Oyl to the Ship's Compy on Account of the great Quantities of Fruit got here".

Nothing Worthy of Note

On 20th, wrote Cook, "Nothing worthy of note happened till the Dusk of the evening when one of the Natives made off with a musquet belonging to the Guard on shore, I was present when this happen'd and sent two or three of our people after him, this would have signified but little had not some of the natives pursued the thief, knock'd him down and took from him the Musquet and return'd it to us".

Three days later "I set out accompanied by Captain Furneaux some of the Gentlemen and several of the Natives, we met the Chief... I knew him at first sight and he me, having seen each other several times in 1769 at which time he was but a boy". According to Wales "the Capt returned from his Visit to the King, Owhyadoa, having with much difficulty, and expince in presents &c procured three Hogs."

Off to Matavai Bay

The next day, wrote Burney "we hove our Anchors up & saild from this place, the Commodore leaving his Cutter behind to try if they could procure any more Hogs - the next day (25th) the Cutter returned about Noon with 10 which were divided between the 2 Ships - at 7 this Evening we Anchored in Matavia Bay in 10 fathoms & Moord with our Small Bower & Stream Anchors".

When the natives came aboard, Cook found "several of whom I knew and almost all of them me... In the morning, after having given directions about erecting Tents for the reception of the Sick, Coopers and guard, I set out for Oparre accompanied by Captain Furneaux, some of the gentlemen... as soon as we landed we were conducted to Otoo [Tu]", the chief.

When Cook returned, he "had the Sick land, Twenty from the Adventure and one from the Resolution, landed a sufficient number of men to guard the Whole and left the command to Lieutt Edgcombe of the Marines." "A party of Marines being sent on Shore as a Guard", wrote Wales, "I landed my Observatory and Instruments and begun to put them up on the Spot where Mr Green Observed the Transit of Venus in 1769".


"The next morning", wrote Forster, "before breakfast, their great Chief Otoo came on board in a little Canoe, with a great many presents... Otoo mounted on the Quarterdeck, & after a great many persuasions & after sending his Brother down to examine the place, he came into the Cabin". Over the next few days Tu was a frequent visitor. On 28th, Cook "entertained him with the Bag-pipes of which musick he was very fond, and dancing by the Seamen". The next day they visited Tu at Pare "where we were entertain'd with a Dramatick Heava or Play in which were both Dancing and Comedy".

On 31st Wales wrote "A little after 9 oClock in the Morning we began to take down the Observatories Clocks Instruments &c and by ½ past 11 they were all packed up and ready to put into the Boat, and by Noon they were all safe on board the Ship again." In the evening Forster "heard some noise a shore, caused by some young Gentlemen of the Adventure, who had gone a shore. The Captains sent for them, & three Marines & one Seaman who had gone from the Tents with leave, but staid beyond their time & one of which had beaten an Indian were brought on board, & put into Irons. The next day... the Capt flogged the people, that had been outrageous".

On 1st September, "the Sick being all pretty well recovered", wrote Cook, "our Water Casks repaired and fill'd and the necessary repairs of the Sloops compleated I determined to put to sea without Loss of time... At 3 o'Clock in the afternoon the Boat" taken by Richard Pickersgill, third lieutenant on the Resolution, returned from a search for hogs "with my old friend Potattou the chief" of a nearby area.


Hodges             portrait of Potatow
Georg Forster wrote "Potatow was one of the tallest men we had seen upon the island, and his features were so mild, comely, and at the same time majest-ic, that Mr. Hodges immediately applied himself to copy from them, as from the noblest models of nature... His whole body was remarkably strong and heavily built, so that one of his thighs nearly equalled in girth our stoutest sailor's waist. His ample garments, and his elegant white turban, set off his figure to the greatest advantage, and his noble deportment endeared him to us". Joppien and Smith in their book The Art of Captain Cook's Voyages, The Voyage of the Resolution and Adventure 1772 - 1775, Yale University Press, 1985, say that compared to the original sketch by Hodges, the engraving by John Hall, "is heavier in its presentation, the moustache is thicker and carried into a thicker beard... the sharp tapa folds [of the garment] have been softened into the cotton-like folds of an Oriental turban and given a rounder and fuller shape."


Elsewhere in this book they make an interesting commentary on Hodges' style of oil painting, including four small ones on canvas belonging to the collection handed over to the Admiralty by him in the fulfillment of his commission.

Hodges' style of oil painting

"The first is a painting that has long been known as View Taken in the Bay of Oaitepeha... but which is almost certainly... A View of Point Venus and Matavai Bay Looking East... There is a freshness and directness about this work that suggests that it was painted from the Resolution during the first visit to Matavai Bay... Painting into the eye of the light, Hodges has produced a fine effect of tropical sunlight, silhouetting the hills and palm trees against a rose-pink sky. Sun-rays break though a cloud of smoky magenta blue to reflect the warm colours of the sky in the still waters of the bay. A blue mist covers the tops of the hills. The whole object of the study has been to capture a colour effect of tropical light at sunrise."

Before they left Tahiti, "a young Otahitean whose name was Porio having a curiosity to know a little more of the World... came on board and desir'd to be admitted as a Volunteer; he met with a cordial reception and very chearfully set out upon his Travels", wrote Clerke. "At Noon, Eimeo, or York Island bore SE and the Island of Huaheine WBN", wrote Wales.


On 2nd, continued Wales, "at 12 Wore Ship & brought too on the other Tack untill 15h when we made sail & ranged close along the Reef which surrounds the Island in order to be as much to windward as possible when we came off the Harbour's mouth, where we had to work in through a gap in the Reef scarce more than a Cable's length wide, which we happily effected without touching on either hand: But the Adventure attempting to follow us when we were about half through unfortunately missed stays the first time and droped on the Larboard Reef... the Master was sent with Hands to assist them".

"Early in the morning" of the 4th, Cook "sent Lieutenant Pickersgill with the Cutter on a tradeing party towards the South end of the Island and also a nother on shore near the Sloops, with this I went my self to see it was properly conducted". According to Forster "Capt Cook's Indian from Otahaitee went with us ashore in a Frock & a pair of Trowsers; here his pride was awakened & he would not be looked upon as an Indian; he took care not to talk with the Natives." They met Ori, the chief, who, Cook wrote, still had "a small peice of Pewter which I left with him when [I saw] him in 1769, it was in the same bag I had made for it together with a peice of counterfeit English coin and a few Beads".

The next day Wales wrote, "this Island is deemed remarkable for the largest and best constructed Canoes of any in this part of the South seas... A transverse section of the body of the Canoe is in the Margin."

The next day, according to Cook, "Mr Sparman being out alone botanizing was set upon by two men who striped him of every thing he had but his Trowsers, they struck him several times with his own hanger but happily did him no harm... a man... gave him a piece of cloth to cover himself and conducted him to me." Despite the efforts of Ori, only "the hanger, the only thing of value Mr Sparman had lost, and part of his waist coat" was returned.


On 7th "unmoored and made sail, Having Purchased upwards of 400 Hogs at this small, but plentiful Island" wrote Wales. On the Adventure was, wrote Furneaux, "one of the Natives a young man who expressed the greatest desire to go to Britania". He was called Omai or, more properly, Mai.

They sailed for Ulietea, now called Raiatea, where Cook "intended to stop a few days to procure an addition of Fruit to our present stock: in going round the South end of the Island I had an oppertunity to discover an error in my Chart of the Isle constructed in my former Voyage." The ships sailed in as close as they could, which was "in 17 fathom water, we then carried out anchors and Hawsers to warp in by and as soon as the Resolution was out of the Way the Adventure anchored in like manner and warped in by the Resolution. The warping in and mooring the Sloops took us up the whole day", the 8th.

According to Forster "the Capt set the Armorer at work to make large knives for trade from old iron Hoops... Their cloth they offer in great Quantities for Nails. They like beads, but only as presents; for fruit they allways expect Nails, & Iron-ware." Wales "went on Shore with Mr Pickersgill to look out for a proper place to erect the Observatory on, as Capt Cook talked of having a Tent & Guard on Shore, & found one Convenient enough: indeed the principal thing to be considered was the End of the Solar Eclipse which will happen on the 16th Inst which I has some notion might possibly be seen here."

On each of the next few days they either visited or were visited by "the Chief of this part of the Isle whose name is Oreo". They were often entertained by a Heava or dance, which Burney described. "I shall only say of their dancing that in 5 minutes time they commonly go through all their manoeuvres - the rest is a continual repetition - but what afforded me much more entertainment, was at every interval between their dancing, small dramatic pieces were acted by way of interludes to intertain the Spectators while the dancers took breath. These were performd by men. they have a great deal of good action. one in particular whom we nicknamed Garrick expressed the passions so lively in his looks, Voice & actions that we easily dived into his meaning & understood the plots of most of their pieces - Every now and then the Spectators would break into immoderate fits of laughter at some jest which was lost to us from our little knowledge of their language - however we were able to comprehend the Story".

Nothing Worthy of Note

On 12th Cook wrote, "Many of the Gentlemen and Seamen were on Shore to day rambling about the Country and met every were with sevel [civil] treatment from the Natives." The next day he wrote just one sentence: "Nothing happen'd worthy of note." In contrast, Forster wrote a great deal: "we took a long Excursion to the North part of the Isle, in order to see whether a more distant part of the Country would afford us new plants... I had before gone in the Company of Messrs Cooper & Clerck, Lieuts of the Ship, Mr Burr, Mate, & Mr Anderson, Gunner of the Ship, & I had my Servant, (who was very weak from a looseness which he had had 2 days ago) & a Saylor by Capt Cooks leave with me." John Daval Burr from London was master's mate. Robert Anderson from Inver-ness had been quartermaster in the Endeavour.

They did not return together. When they got back to near the ships "my Son [George] told me he wanted to hire a Canoe, near which he stood... for we were much tired. I told he should do it; he told me the Man wanted 4 Nails. I told him I had but one, he should offer him beads, but the Man refused... I waded on, but when I cast my Eyes a shore, I saw the Fellow Endeavouring to wrestle the Gun out of George's hand; George let then one hand go, & put into his bosom; the fellow had then the Gun; I thought it was all over with George; paternal Affection would not allow me to be quiet at this act of violence & I must expect to have in my turn my gun wrestled from me. I pointed my Gun at the Fellow, when he returned the Gun & went off, but I ran up to him & could have shot him dead, but I was resolved not to hurt the fellow... And my shooting at the Fellow had no conse-quences of note, for Mr Cooper afterwards saw the Man & found that on the left Shoulder by about 9 Shots he was just skinwounded." In the evening, continued Forster, "the Captain began to reflect upon my conduct; he arrogated himself an Authority, which he had not, & I supported my Independency of him, with a Spirit which becomes a Man of honour; the Dispute went however too far... & so some hot & unguarded Expressions came out on both sides & he sent me by Force out of his Cabin".

On the same day Pickersgill wrote "haveing got on Board a great Numbr of Hoggs and nothing to feed them with, our next buissness was to procure food, this we found could not be done in Uliateah but the Native told us there was plenty in the neghbouring Island of Otaha, to which I was sent the next day with a Part of Soldgers and two Boats". They stayed over night. "When the Mor-ning came, I got up by times for to get a way as early as possible, but enquireing for the people I found most of them absent and on a further exam-ination found them one in one house and one in an other all stragled about the Woods each man with his Mistress."

On 14th Wales wrote "One of the Natives being caught with two shirts which he had stole from a person who was washing, the Capt ordered him to be tyed up to the shrouds & punished with two dozen Lashes."

John Elliott, midshipman in the Resolution, recorded an incident worth repeating. "Myself and Mess Mate Roberts had taken a walk about two miles along the Seaside, passing several Houses, when we met a Mr Fawlkner, of the Adventure, who told us that he had been greatly insulted by some people in one of the Houses we had passed. On returning, we passed the House, when Mr Fawlkner exclaimed: This is the House where the Rascals insulted me, and in he walked. We both followed, without knowing what he intended to do, but we had hardly got into the House before in came three very stout Men, with large Clubs. Fawlkner instantly took to his heels, and Roberts followed, leaving me standing in the middle of the House (the three Men between me and the door.) They were both better armed than me, one having a small Sword, the other a Cut and Thrust. Mine was only a Hanger. Yet in this situation, the three Men with their Clubs held up before me, I stood composed, considering which of them I should make a lounge at, and then try to escape, when one of them opened a way for me, and beconed me to go, to my very great satisfaction. Whether this was done from humanity towards me, or from admiring the fortitude with which I kept my post, I know not, but whatever their motives might be, the circumstance was pleasing to me. I soon overtook my two companions, whom I rated pretty sharply for deserting me, which so mortified Fawlkner, that I thought we should have fought, for the purpose of proving that he was no coward." Henry Roberts was an Able Seaman on the Resolution. John Richard Falconer had been made up from A.B. to master's mate on 1st April.

Elliott continued "Near this island lays one called Bolabola [Borabora] inhabited by the finest race of Men, and the greatest warriors, amongst them, and are most of them of a Caste called Aree Highs [Arioi], who never marry, and have particular marks by tatowing on the Legs, etc. We therefore called them the Knights of Bolabola, and all our Mess conceived the idea of having some mark put on ourselves, as connecting us together, as well as to commemorate our having been at Otaheite. For which purpose, we deter-mined on having a compleat Star drawn and then Tattowed with black, the same way as the Natives are tattowed, upon our left Breast, and, painful as this operation was, we all underwent it, and have each a very handsome Black Star on our left Breast, the size of a Crown Piece. Hence we called ourselves Knights of Otaheite, but tho we intended to keep this Badge to ourselves, yet we no sooner began to Bathe, than it spread halfway through the Ship."

On 16th Cook "having got a board a large supply of refreshments I determined to put to Sea in the morning". According to Forster, "Capt Furneaux brought me word Capt Cook was sorry for having acted with such violence against me, & by my Son desired me to come to an Accomodation, for I had insisted upon a Satisfaction: I desired to be re-introduced by Capt Cook into his Cabin, & desired me to come into the great Cabin, where after several Discources, we both yielded without giving any thing up of honour, & then shook hands".


Hodges             portrait of Odiddy
The next morning Cook sailed, "having on board the Resolution about 230 and on board the Adventure about 150" hogs. "The young man I got at Otahiete left me at Ulietea two days before we saild being inticed away by a young Woman for whom he had contracted a friendship. I took no methods to recover him as their were Volanteers enough out of whome I took one, a youth". His name, wrote Clerke, "was Odiddy a native of Bolo Bolo being very desirous to see Britannia". According to Cook "Oediddee... may be of use to us if we should fall in with and touch at any isles in our rout to the west which was my only montive for takeing him on board."


The Ships Leave the Society Islands

Cook now "directed my Course to the West inclining to the South as well to avoid the tracks of former Navigators as to get into the Latitude of Amsterdam Island discovered by Tasman in 1643 [Tongatapu], my intention being to run as far west as that Island and even to touch there if I found it convenient before I proceeded to the South. In the PM we saw the Island of Maurua [Maupiti], one of the Society Isles... A little after Sun set shorten'd Sail to single reefed Top-sails and brought to during the night, but in the day made all the sail we could. This we continued to do for several suceeding nights."

On 21st they had "gentle breezes and variable Hazy weather with Thunder lightning and rain." According to Wales they "ran up the Conductor". Clerke added, "this Afternoon there were a remarkable number of Sharks about the Ship - we caught several with Hooks & Lines. We reckon'd at one time eleven about us." On 23rd "At 10 o'Clock AM saw land from the mast head and at Noon from the Deck extending from SBW to SWBS, hauld up in order to discover it plainer." The land "proved to be three small Islands connected together by a reef of rocks in which they are incircled... we saw no people or signs of inhabitants. I named them Sandwich in honour of my noble Patron the Earl of Sandwich". These were the Hervey Islands, in the Lower Cooks. There are only two islands: Manuae and Auoto. Cook changed his mind about their name. "I afterwards altered the name of this isle, and called it Herveys isle and gave the name of Sandwich to one of the Hebrides". It was now named "in honor of Captain Harvey of the Navy and one of the Lords of the Admiralty". Augustus John Hervey was also 3rd Earl of Bristol.

On 27th Bayly, on the Adventure, noted that Omai, "the Indian that came with us from Huaheine is in high Spirits he being well of the Sea-sickness common at first going to sea - & has forgot his country in some Measure." On the Resolution, Forster wrote "our Cocks & Hens begin to grow ill, though great Care is taken of them; not being used to the Food we can afford them, the Plantains & Bananas now being consumed."

31st September, 225 years ago, "Cook got all the Bread out of Bread room upon deck to sift and air".

Originally published in Cook's Log, page 1531, volume 21, number 3 (1998).

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