James Cook held the rank and position of Commander of the sloop Resolution, and Tobias Furneaux was Commander of the sloop Adventure. However, both people were called by everyone Captain, as was usual for those in charge of ships. Cook was also Commodore of this squadron.
At the beginning of April, 1773, Resolution was at Dusky Bay (now Dusky Sound), New Zealand, and Adventure was sailing from Van Diemen’s Land (now Tasmania) towards Queen Charlotte Sound, New Zealand, the rendezvous place chosen by Cook.
On 3 April, after two days of squally weather, Furneaux “Serv’d the Ship’s Company an Extra Allowance of Brandy, they being wet in shortening Sail”.
That day, wrote William Bayly, the astronomer in Adventure, “At day brake the weather cleared up & we discovered land bearing N. b E. It proved to be the land between Rockey point & Cape farewell, or the S.W. point opening Cooks Straits, or the N. W. point of the Southern Island or half of New Zeeland... we stood into the Straits mouth until 10 o’clock [in the evening] when we brought too to wait for the morning”.
On 4 April, Furneaux “Read the Articles of War to the Ships Compy. Punished Jno Cavenaugh Seaman with 12 Lashes for Insolence”. John Cavanagh was an able bodied seaman (AB). As they sailed towards Queen Charlotte’s Sound, the charts they had with them from Cook’s First Voyage enabled them to recognise many places, such as Cape Stephens, Mount Egmont and Entry Island.
The next day, Second Lieutenant James Burney wrote, “were this morning off Admiralty Bay... Point Jackson which is the west point of Charlotte Sound bearing S.E... at ½ past 2 in the afternoon—the Wind being foul & tide against us, we came to an Anchor between Admiralty Bay & Charlotte Sound.
The following day, Furneaux wrote “At 2 [pm] weighed and stood in for Queen Charlotte’s Sound. At 5 Anchored in Ship Cove with the best bower [anchor] in 10 fathoms”. That evening, Burney was sent “in the Small Cutter to look round the Cove for a Watering place & to see if there were any marks of the Resolution having been here—found several very convenient Watering places with Excellent Water, & one where we judge Captain Cook Waterd in the Endeavour—the Names of Several of his people being cut in the Trees, but no signs of the Resolution—Caught a great many Fish tonight & Shot some Shelldrakes, Curlieus & other Birds—which we found here in great plenty”
In the evening of 7 April, Bayly “observed an eclipse of the Moon”. The following day, Furneaux “employ’d on an Island a shore in Clearing a place for our Tents”. According to Burney, the island was “calld the Motuara in C. Cooks Chart—on this we erected a Tent for the convenience of repairing our Sails, Casks &c & getting the Sick on shore—5 in number & only one of the scurvy—we have been all very hearty thank God, since we left the Cape [of Good Hope]... we now employd ourselves in repairing our Rigging, wooding, Watering & other necessary things”. Furneaux noted that “on top of the Island was a post erected by the Endeavour’s people with her name and time of Departure on it”. Bayly “went with Capt. Furneaux to a small island where there is an Indian town forsaken by the inhabitants”. This islet lies off the southern end of Motuara. It was here that he erected his Observatory Tent.
On 9 April, Burney wrote, “Some Canoes came down the Sound—2 of them a double one & a single one came to the Ship—at about 20 yards distance they stopd Short when one of them Stood up & made a long Speech, every now & then waving a Bough, the rest keeping a profound Silence—after this they ventured alongside & came on board. They enquired for Tobia [Tupaia] (the man C. Cook brought from Otaheite) —were much concerned at hearing he was dead & seemed to suspect we had put him to death, till we made Signs that the Almighty had killd him - we made them several presents & bought some of their Arms & Cloaths”. According to Bayly they were calling for “the man that came from Otahiti with Mr. Banks”.
The next morning, continued Bayly, “we discovered 3 more canoos coming round a point of land & soon after were joined by the two which was alongside the day before. They came alongside without fear, offering everything they had for sale a spike nail being the price of anything we chose. There was 46 men & women, & two children, many of the men came on board & began to pool [pull] the ropes with the seamen as they were raising casks out of the Hold & it was with some difficulty we made them take to their canoes, for all the signs was of little effect till we got some muskets with Bayonets fixed at the sight of which they took to their Boats & put off to some distance & soon after left us, paddling back from whence they first came—this about noon. In the afternoon I went on shore on the Island—completed a place to receive the tents and instruments, & returned again in the evening”.
On 11 April, Burney wrote, “It blew too fresh for the Indians to come on board. This afternoon we cleard a spot of ground for a Garden & Set several kinds of seeds—Sow’d pease & Wheat all which came up to great perfection in a Short time”.
The next day, Furneaux “took in ab[ou]t 8 Ton of Shingle Ballast. Burney wrote, “More Canoes came down the Sound—we had 10 alongside of us—at Night they all went up the Harbour together on account of bad weather which they said was coming—they were not mistaken—we saw no more of them till the middle of the next week”.
On 15 April, Furneaux “Punished David Lewis for Theft”. He was part of the carpenter’s crew. Two days later, Furneaux’s men were “Employ’d in getting the Astronomer’s Instruments on Shore”. According to Bayly, “I built a house for my transit instrument & put up my tent observatory. This I was obliged to do myself together with a young lad who was my servant, for the Capt. & other officers negative assistance in their power in every respect. But however by the assistance of a good natured Wels[h]man, who would always work if I gave him Brandy (he being the only healthy man sent on shore) I soon got everything in pretty good order. My whole force was two marines, one sick & the other well; a Highland piper very bad in the scurvey, three young lads who were midshipman, two of whom had never been at sea before, & the other seemed very little acquainted [with] any duty, but the first Lieut, thought it a good opportunity of sending them out of the way”.
On 21 April, wrote Burney, “the Captn sent the Large Cutter up the Sound with the Master & acting Lieutenant”. The next day, “the Cutter returned having been 7 Leagues up without seeing any Inhabitants or being able to find where the Sound ends”. He also added that Māori came every day in canoes, “supplying us every day with fish, of which the Captain for 3 or 4 nails would purchase sufficient quantity to serve the whole Ships Company”.
On 25 April, Burney wrote, “we hove our Anchors up & got further into Ship Cove being too much exposed to the S.S.W. wind which sometimes blows very Strong down the sound”. Three days later, “we Shifted our Tent from the Island to the Watering place in the Cove, it being nearer the ship & more convenient”. The activities of the next week or so were repetitious, resulting in few journal entries from anyone. According to Furneaux, “sent ashore all the spars and Lumber off the Decks that they might be caulked and gave her a winter coat to preserve the Hull & Rigging”.
On 11 May, Furneaux “felt two severe shocks of an Earthquake but received no kind of Damage”.
A week later on 18 May, “at Sunrise”, wrote Burney, “we were alarmed by 2 Musquetoons being fired at the Astronomers Tent on the Hippa—which we soon found to our great joy & satisfaction, was meant as a signal for the Resolution who was then coming in round Point Jackson”. Furneaux added, “we saluted [her] with 11 Guns which she returned”, and “we sent out the boats to her assistance to tow her in it being calm. In the evening she anchored about a mile without us, and next morning weighed and warped within us. Both Ships felt an uncommon joy at our meeting after an absence of fourteen Weeks”.
On 1 April, Cook wrote, “began to cut down Wood for fuel, got our empty casks ashore to fill with Water and to repair such as were in want of repair, set up the Forge to repair our Iron Work and put the Sail-makers to Work upon the Sails all of which were absolutly necessary occupations. Also began to Brew Beer with the leaves & branches of a tree”, the Rimu (Dacrydium cupressinum).
William Wales the astronomer, “Set up the Clock, and got a Puncheon filled with stones and gravel as a stand for the Quadrant; but had the mortification to find that neither one nor the other could be fixed with sufficient steadyness to answer any purpose, on account of the loosness of the ground: I was therefore to look out for another place & pitched on one where two large trees grew almost close together one of which I cut down close to the ground, and the other about 3½ feet above it”. This place is marked on the charts as Astronomer Point.
The next day, Cook wrote “myself with Lieutt Pickersgill & Mr Hodges went in the Pinnace to view the North West part of the Bay”. Richard Pickersgill was the Third Lieutenant. William Hodges was the artist.
Johann Reinhold Forster “went with Mr Clarck, Mr Edgecumbe, Mr Sparrman & my Son to the Indian Cove... we came late home, having got a great variety of birds”. Charles Clerke was the Second Lieutenant, John Edgcumbe the Marine Lieutenant, Anders Sparrman a naturalist, and George was Reinhold’s son and another naturalist.
Meanwhile, Wales “Leveled the ground for the observatory round the before-mentioned two Trees put up the Tent, & fixed the Iron frame for the clock on one; and set the Quadt on the Other; and found them to answer pretty well; although a smart stamp with the foot at 7 or 8 Yards distance would still make the Plumb-line Shake very plainly in the Microscope”.
On 4 April, Pickersgill wrote, “The People at their own disposal being Sunday”. Forster noted, “We had now drawn 19 birds, 3 fish, 1 Seal & 5 plants & we had described 19 birds, three fish 1 Seal & 6 plants, & we long for nothing else but fine weather”.
The next day, Pickersgill “Got Beer on board for the People and stop’d their Spirits. This Beer I think a pleasant drink. The People seem fond of it”. First Lieutenant Robert Palliser Cooper wrote, “Ship’d a Tent on shore for the Sailmakers to repair the Sails in, the constant Rain preventing them doing it on board”. Forster complained, “my hands are now so much swelled from the Stings of the Sandfly, that I can hardly hold the pen, & have great pain in them, & can pull my Jacket with difficulty off. I was advised to put my hands before night into warm water & I followed this Advice & went thereupon to bed, but I fell into a fever & could not sleep all night”.
On 6 April, Forster wrote, “Capt Cook went out a surveying & I went with my Son & Mr Hodges the painter accompanied him; we went about 2 Leagues, when we entered a spacious long Cove with fine fish, & plenty of fresh-water brooks, one of which at the entrance in a small cove at the left hand formed a most beautiful Cascade”. Cook noted “the Shores are so steep that a ship may lie near enough to convey ye Water into her with a hose. In this Cove we shott fourteen Ducks which occasioned my naming it Duck Cove”, Resolution Island.
Going back to the ship, they came across a man and two women. Cook wrote, “the man seemed rather afraid when we approached the Rock with our Boat, he however stood firm. I threw him a shore two handkerchiefs but he did not descend the Rock to take them up. At length I landed went up and imbraced him”. According to Forster, Cook “shook hands with him... & nosed him, which is a mark of the friendship among these people”. Cook added, “the Gentlemen that were with me and some of the Seamen... spent half an hour in chitchat which was little understood on either side”. Forster considered “as edifying as great many which are usual in the politer circles of civilized nations”.
The next day, the party visited the family whose “habitation or hut on the hill”, wrote Forster, “was made of flags of the Flaxplant covered with bark”. During this stay, wrote Cook, “Mr Hodges made drawens of them which occasioned them to give him the name of Toetoe”, probably from the Māori word Tuhituhi, to paint or draw. The man “expressed a desire for one of our Boat Cloaks, I took the hint and ordered one to be made for him of red Baize”.
On 8 April, Cook “presented the chief with the Cloak with which he seemed well please and took his Patta-pattou [hand club] from his girdle and gave it me”. According to Forster, Samuel Gibson the marine corporal who had sailed in Endeavour and spoke “the Otahataite-language better than any one man in the Ship, talked with them, but they did not understand him, nor he them".
On 11 April, Cooper wrote, “The Indians came close to the Ship in their Canoe & Convers’d with one of our people who understands their Language”. Cook “took Mr Hodges to a large Cascade which falls down a high mountain on the South side of the Bay... He took a drawing of it on Paper and afterwards painted it in oyle Colours which exhibits at one view a better discription of it than I can give... I named [it] Cascade Cove”. Cooper wrote, “Some of the officers [went] on a Shooting Party”.
The next day, Cook, “went in the Pinnace, accompanied by Mr Forster to survey the Isles and Rocks which lie in the mouth of the Bay... I returned aboard about 8 o’Clock in the evening and the next morning set out again to continue the Survey... I rowed out to Sea and round the SW end of Anchor” Island.
On 14 April, Forster wrote, “it rained all day long: my Son drew & I wrote & finished some Descriptions. The next day Pickersgill wrote, “The Captain and 3rd Lieut went away with the Pinnace and small cutter” to continue the survey.
On 19 April, two members of the Māori family went aboard the ship. Forster commented, “They asked the Capt where he slept & when he saw the Cot slung, he was mightily pleased with it”. Cook “set out with two Boats to examine the head of the Bay, my self in one accompanied by the two Mr Forsters and Mr Hodges and Lieutt Cooper in the other”. They passed Cooper Island. “Without meeting any thing remarkable we reached the head of the Bay by sunset where we took up our quarters for the night”. Forster noted, we “prepared a Supper by broiling some fish & some fowl”. Hence the name Supper Cove. In the morning, Cook heard some “natives in the Woods” and later “saw two men on the opposite side of the Bay hollowing to us, this induced me to row over to them... we saluted each other [and] peace seemed firmly established”. Cook continued his survey, arriving back at the ship at “8 o’Clock at night”.
On 21 April, Wales wrote, “Capt Cook informed me that it was necessary to get my things on board the Ship, as he intended to haul Off into a convenient place & go away the first Opportunity”. Cook “went with a party a Seal hunting... we killed Ten, these animals serve us for three purposes, the skins we use for our rigging, the fatt makes oyle for our lamps and the flesh we eat”.
On 27 April, Cook “set out in the Pinnace, accompanied by the two Mr Forsters and Mr Pickersgill, to examine the arm or Inlet [Acheron Passage] I left unexplored when I was at the head of the Bay... I found it to communicate with the Sea, and to offer a better outlet for Ships bound to the northward than the one we cane in by”.
On 29 April, Pickersgill “Got off the Tents and everything from the Shore”. According to Forster, “When we were at dinner the wind shifted, we cast off the hawser, & weighed the anchor & set sail”. Little progress was made over the next few days due to calm weather.
On 4 May, Forster wrote, “The Capt fell... ill with a fever, & a pain in the groin which terminated in a rheumatic selling in the blade of the right foot caused by a cold contracted by wading too frequently in the water & sitting too cold & wet in the boat”.
By 5 May, the ship was at the south end of Acheron Passage. By 6 May, Pickersgill was able to write, “anchor’d under a Point about mile from the Sea at the Outermost End of this Northern Passage, steadyed with a Hawser to the Shore”. According to Forster, “The Capt wanted to go & survey the one Arm we had passed but as he saw the weather was not too favourable & as he was not yet recovered from his rheumatic pain in the leg: he sent Lieut Pickersgill upon that Expedition & I & my Son went along with him... we went up this Arm till it was quite dark... unfortunately it began to rain & wetted us to the skin”. Cook named it Wet Jacket Arm.
It was not until 11 May, that Cook was able to write, “we got under sail with a light breeze at SE and stood out to Sea. [Breaksea Island] is the outermost on the South Point of the entrance to the Bay”. Forster added that they had “been 6 weeks & 4 days in harbour; & there pretty well refreshed with fish, fowl, & Sprucebeer”.
Cook “directed my Course along shore for Queen Charlottes Sound where I expected to find the Adventure. In this passage we met with nothing remarkable or worthy of note till Monday the 17th at 4 oClock in the afternoon being then about 3 Leagues to the Westward of Cape Stephens, having a gentle gale at West by South and clear weather. The Wind at once flattned to a Calm and the Sky became sudanly obscured by dark dense clouds which occasioned us to clew up all our sails and presently after Six Water Spouts were seen... some of our people said they saw a Bird in the one near us which was whirl’d round like the fly of a Jack as it was carried upwards... some of these Spouts appear’d at times to be stationary and at other times to have a quick but very unequal progressive motion and always in a crooked line”.
On 18 May, Cook wrote, “we were the length of Point Jackson at the entrance of Queen Charlottes Sound and soon after we discovered the Adventure in Ship Cove by the Signals she made”.
On 20 May, Pickersgill wrote, “People put to half allowance of Beef Pork and Flower. Boil’d this morning for the Peoples Breakfasts and shall continue it during our stay here a quantity of Portable Soup, with Wheat and some Greens with which these shores abound”. Clerke noted, “Punished Patrick Wheland Quarter Master with 6 lashes for insolence to the Boatswain”. Forster “collected several plants, some of which were new ones. Next day my Son [George] began to draw & Mr [Anders] Sparman to describe the plants”. That day, Cook “with a party of men employed digging up ground on Long Island, which we planted with several sorts of garden seeds”.
On 22 May, Furneaux wrote, “struck the Astronomer’s Tent; the Boats employ’d bringing the Instruments &c on Board”.
The next day, Cook wrote “last Night the Ewe and Ram I had with so much care and trouble brought to this place, died, we did suppose that they were poisoned by eating of some poisonous plant, thus all my fine hopes of stocking this Country with a breed of Sheep were blasted in a moment. Towards noon we were visited for the first time by some of the Natives, they stayed and dined with us and it was not a little they devoured, they were dismiss’d in the evening Loaded with presents”.
On 24 May, Cook “accompanied by Captain Furneaux & Mr Forster went in the Pinnace... on a Shooting party, in our way we met a large Canoe in which were fourteen or fifteen people, one of the first questions they asked was for Tupia the Otaheitean and they seem’d to express some concern when we told them he was dead”. The next day, Forster wrote, “rainy and blowing weather. We brought our plants & Descriptions in order, & George made Drawings of the new Curiosities”.
On 26 May, Forster wrote, “We had this day Capt Furneaux, Mr Kempe & Mr Andrews from on board the Adventure to dinner”. Arthur Kempe was the First Lieutenant, and Thomas Andrews was the surgeon. Two days later, “We dined on board the Adventure & passed a night very socially & Agreably among our Friends”. And the following day, “We had Capt Furneaux, Mr Bailey & Mr Fanning [Peter Fannin, the Master] from on board the Adventure to dinner. Mr Hodge[s] had drawn some heads of the old Indians in red Chalk which were pretty like”.
On 29 May, Furneaux, “Struck 6 Guns down into the Main hold. Employ’d getting ready for Sea”. Wales wrote, “When we came to wind up the Watches at Noon, it was found that the middle Lock to Mr Arnold’s Watch was damaged, and could not be opened, I suppose by its being opened yesterday with a wrong Key through mistake. It was proposed to open the Box by sawing of the Staples in to which the Bolts of the lock shoot; but being apprehensive that the action of the saw might shake the watch too much, I proposed that the screws which fastn these Staples to the cover of the box might be wrenched out, by introducing the blade of a screw Driver, & turning it round; and which was accordingly put in execution. As some damage was done to the Lock by this Accident, the Lock was taken off and the Watch trusted under the other two untill it was repaired”.
The next day, Furneaux “Punished David Lewis & Wm Carney with a dozen lashes each for drunkenness & Insolence to their officers”. William Kearney was a marine. Two days later, Forster wrote, “a good many Indians came early on board... These Indians became soon familiar with us; some of them were drawn by Mr Hodges, especially one, whose Face was finely punctured in spirals, in a very regular way”.
On 4 June, Burney wrote, “This being His Majestys Birthday the Officers of both Ships were invited to dine with the Commodore & we had a very jovial Afternoon”. Furneaux “fired 21 Guns [it] being the anniversary of His Majs birth[day]”. King George III was born on 4 June, 1738.
For 5 and 6 June, Cook wrote, “Both these days the Wind was at SE and blew a fresh gale so that we neither could sail or have any communication with our friends the natives”.
On 7 June, Furneaux wrote, “At 7 [am] weighed and made Sail in company with the Resolution”. According to Cook, “as soon as we had got out of the Sound we found the Wind at South so that we had to ply through the [Cook] Straits. At Noon the two Brothers [islands] bore West distant one mile”.
The next day, Bayly “had a fine view of the North part of the Southern Alps of New Zeeland. They appear very high & covered with snow which is always the case even in the midst of summer, as Capt. Cook informed me, he being at New Zeeland in the midst of the Southern Summer in the year 1769”.
On 8 June, Cook wrote, “To day when we attended the Winding up of the Watches the fusee of Mr Arnolds would not turn round and after several unsuccessfull tryals we were obliged to let it go down”. Two days later, “at Noon we were in the Latitude of 43°55’ S. Longitude 179°50’ East... we shall presently pass the Meridian of 180° after which I shall count my Longitude West of Greenwich”. They also crossed the modern date line. However, no one altered the dates in the journals or logs.
On 11 June, Furneaux wrote “thick fog... at ½ past 10 fired a Gun in answer to one from the Resolution, at 12 saw her”. According to Forster, “we had hazy weather, with a fog & drizzling rain & lost sight of the Adventure: we fired a small gun & a swivel [gun], which were not answered, but the fourpounder we fired soon after was answered”.
On 15 June, Cooper wrote, “Very hazey with Mixling Rain, the Adventure out of sight. Fired a Gun which she Answered”.
On 23 June, Furneaux wrote, “Resolution sent her boat onboard us to compare the Watches; they informed us that Arnold’s watch was stopt and they could not wind it up”. William Wales accompanied Resolution’s watch. Cooper noted, “Punish’d Thos Snowden, Edwd Tyrrell & John Innell Seamen, 6 lashes each for neglect of Duty”.
On 26 June, Forster wrote, “At this present time, it is a year, that I left London & my Family, & set out for Plymouth in a Post-chaise. My wishes are, that the rest of our voyage may be attended with as much good Luck & without any sinister Accidents as the elapsed Year, & that I may be happy enough to return to my Family, with the rich Spoils of Nature in these Seas, to the contentement of the Great Monarch & those under him, who employ me; & that I may be able to pass the rest of my Life in peace & retirement among my worthy Friends & my Family.”
Originally published in Cook's Log, page22, volume 46, number 2 (2023).
your email address will not be published