There are three major viewpoints from which Cook as a commander or governor of men has been seen. First, there were those of his naval contemporaries, both on the lowerdeck, in the gunroom, and on the quarterdeck. Secondly, there were the supernumeraries who went on the voyages. Thirdly, a wide range of historians has presented multifarious opinions as to Cook's capacity as a commander/governor of men.
This article covers the first viewpoints.
A Lowerdeck View - John Marra
The Journal of the Resolution's Voyage in 1772, 1773, 1774 and 1775, attributed to John Marra, has inter-alia, this to say:
Amidst the hardships of such a navigation, there is nothing so astonishing as that the crew continued in perfect health, scarce a man being ill as to be incapable of duty. Nothing can redound more to the honour of the Commander, than his paying particular attention to the preservation of health among his crew. By observing the strictest discipline from the highest to the lowest, his commands were duly observed and punctually executed. When the service was hard, he tempered the severity of it by frequently relieving those employed in the performance, and having all hands at command, he was never under the necessity of continuing the labour of any set of men beyond what their strength and their spirits could bear. Another necessary precaution was that when the weather was fine, and the breeze steady, he never suffered any of his men to be idle but constantly employed the armourers, the carpenters, the caulkers, the sailmakers, rope-makers, the other tradesmen on board, as well as the foremastmen and professed navigators in doing something each in his own way, which though not immediately wanted, he knew there would be a call for before the voyage was completed. Having by this means no time for gaming, quarrelling, or rioting among them, he kept them in action and punished drunkenness with the utmost severity: and thus by persevering in a steady line of conduct he preserved their health, and was enabled by that precaution to keep the sea till reduced to a very scant portion of water; and still despairing of finding any new land and fully satisfying himself of the non-existence of any continent in the quarter which he had traversed, he found it necessary to direct his course to Charlotte Sound.1
Besides giving a very informative account of shipboard life, if these are indeed, the words of Gunner's Mate John Marra, they are the very generous tribute of one of the most-punished men of the second voyage.2
A Lowerdeck View - John Dodsworth
The following correspondence gives another lowerdeck view of the esteem in which Cook was held:
Captain Cook to Secretary Stevens
Sheerness, 3 May [should be June], 1772.
Several applycations hath been made to me by John Dodsworth of his Majesty's ship Barfleur, to go out in the Resolution, sloop, under my command, previous to receiving the inclosed. As he is known to some of my officers to be a good man, and the great desire he seems to have to go the voyage, induceth me to pray that you will move my Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty to grant his request.
I am &c.,
[signed] Jams Cook.
John Dodsworth to Captain Cook
His Majestie's ship Barfleur,
I have made bold to trouble your honour once more, hoping your honour will be so good as to make interest for to get me along with you. I wrote to Edward Turrell [Terrell] before, but not having an answer, I have given all expectation over till hearing from him this present instant, and he desires me to apply to your honour again, which news gives me a great satisfaction, and hopes to gain my point, so far as to have the pleasure to sail with your honour; but not hearing for so long time had given all hopes over, and I endeavour'd very hard to gett out in the Prudent to the East Indies, but could not have that liberty, and had since been made a quartermaster; but if they was to make me ten times better it would not be so agreeable to me as to proceed with your honour which if your honour will be so good as for to gett that grant from the Board [of Admiralty], for without that I am very certain that I shall not have the liberty to leave this ship on any consideration. So s'r, your honour's complience in this will always oblidge me to think myself in duty bound to pray for your honour's health and wellfare, and all belonging theirto. But pray s'r, if this not granted, be so good as not to mention it farther, or other ways possible I may gain displeasure.
So s'r, I subscribe myself, s'r, your most humble servant to command.
[signed] John Dodsworth.3
Dodsworth did not manage to sail with Cook on the second voyage. The captain of the Barfleur most probably blocked the non-release of the aspiring quartermaster, knowing when he had a good sailor on his ship. What the letters illustrate, however, is how naval captains in the eighteenth century built up, or attempted to build up, a "following". Edward Terrell - a "folllower" of Cook - had sailed with Cook on the Endeavour and was to sail again on the Resolution, after Cook had requested his transfer from the Barfleur.4 Terrell's part in inducing his old shipmate to write to Cook is patently obvious. Cook, on the other hand, was keen to get the services of a seaman who had been recommended by some of his officers. Petitions by seamen to sail with captains of their choice, was an everyday occurrence in the eighteenth century Royal Navy. Furthermore, when captains changed ships, "they hoped to be able to take with them their followers, or as many as possible".5 When Cook transferred from the Grenville to the Endeavour, nearly all the crew went with him. The men who sailed with Cook to New Zealand more than once, and especially his companions on all three voyages,6 are others who were Cook's "followers"-"securing one's old followers was not only a means to an efficient and contented crew, but also a main support of an officer's credit."7
A Lowerdeck View - William Watman
Another endorsement of Cook from the lowerdeck, was the action of A.B. William Watman who went with Cook on the third voyage, giving up a safe retirement in Greenwich Hospital in order to do so. If "actions speak louder than words", then William Watman's actions spoke very loudly in Cook's favour as a commander of men.
A Lowerdeck View - Heinrich Zimmermann
A further lowerdeck view of Cook is obtained from Heinrich (Henry) Zimmermann. He regarded Cook as one of the greatest men of his time and described him thus:
Captain Cook was a tall, handsome, strong, but somewhat spare man. His hair was dark brown, his expression somewhat stern, and his shoulders bent. He began life as a common sailor but worked his way up until he became one of the most famous navigators. He was exceedingly strict, and so hasty tempered that the least contradiction on the part of an officer or sailor made him very angry. He was inexorable regarding the ship's regulations and the punishments connected with them so much so, indeed, that if, when we were amongst the natives, anything was stolen from us by them the man on watch at the time was severely punished for his neglect.
Probably no sea-officer has ever had such an extensive command over the officers serving under him as Captain Cook. No officer ever presumed to contradict him. When at table with his officers he frequently sat without saying a word. He was, in fact, very reserved. In small matters the common sailors were more severely disciplined than the officers, but at times he was exceedingly affable to the crew.
On occasions he made very fine speeches, and I remember how, when we went to Nihau for the first time, he warned us in a most kindly way not to infect the innocent islanders with a certain disease from which we ourselves suffered.
He never mentioned religion, and would have no priests on his ships; and, although he seldom celebrated the Sabbath, he was a just and upright man in all his dealings. He never swore,8 not even when in a rage.
He was scrupulously clean, and the example which he set in this direction had to be followed by every man on board. It was a regulation that every member of the crew should put on clean clothes every Sunday.
Moderation was one of his chief virtues. Throughout the entire voyage no one ever saw him drunk. It was never permitted to the sailors to save up their brandy for several days and then get drunk, and if it happened at any time that a man was too drunk to carry out his duties he was severely punished.9
However, Zimmermann served, not on the Resolution, but on the Discovery on the third voyage, where he was a coxswain, according to the Discovery's muster roll. "He was not, therefore, in a position to know at first hand many things. He had no information except the distorted gossip of the forecastle", declared F.W. Howay.10 Beaglehole is even more severe, "he neither knew much nor recollected accurately. He is however, valuable for his lower-deck impressions of the character of Cook."11 In another context Zimmermann claims, "In times of the greatest danger his [Cook's] chief concern was to keep calmness and order on the ship. In this he was so successful that for the most part all eyes were fixed on him".12
A Gunroom View - James Maria Matra
This last opinion is somewhat at variance with that contained in The Anonymous Journal - A Journal of a Voyage Round the World in His Majesty's Ship Endeavour - attributed to James Maria Matra (or Magra).
Matra accused Cook of indecisiveness and loss of control in treacherous waters in Cook Strait, New Zealand:
the captain who was about to give orders of a different kind became irresolute; and during the dispute with the officer of the watch which this contrariety of opinion occasioned we were carried so near the rocks that our preservation appeared almost impossible.13
Nevertheless, the ship was not wrecked14 and the circumnavigation of the South Island was subsequently successfully completed. Matra was a midshipman of Italian-American extraction, who ran foul of Cook over the incident when Cook's clerk, Richard Orton, had his clothes, and part of his ears cut off as part of a drunken binge emanating from the gunroom. Cook dismissed Matra from the quarterdeck, declaring him to be, "one of those gentlemen frequently found on board Kings Ships that can very well be spared, or to speak more planer good for nothing."15 Cook's suspicions that Matra was the perpetrator, or possibly ringleader in Orton's disfigurement, proved unfounded and he was later reinstated to his "station" of midshipman.16 Antonio Giordano, an Italian-Australian, republished The Anonymous Journal in Adelaide in 1975. In his introduction to the book he alleges that, "Matra did not like Cook who apparently had not been very fair to him." Giordano suggests that perhaps Cook disliked Matra's foreign name and background.17 Matra gives a much less condemnatory account of the purloining of kumara (potatoes) by some sailors from a Maori garden, than Cook gives.18 There are too, Matra's much later (1790) allegations of a planned mutiny at Tahiti: "I was a ringleader among a few who had prepared for remaining."19 If Matra and Beaglehole's "Anon 71" were one and the same person, then he emerges in the record as the most discordant critic of Cook from among his shipmates. Beaglehole, if we can judge from his rather condemnatory remarks about "Anon 71", did not like him; he was too much the censurer of his (Beaglehole's) hero.20
A Surgeon's View - David Samwell
Surgeon's mates occupied a social and hierarchical position on eighteenth century naval vessels somewhere between the lowerdeck and the quarterdeck. They administered to both, and were, in a special sense, something of a conduit between the two. David Samwell, surgeon's second mate on the Resolution during the third voyage until August 1778, when he was discharged into the Discovery as surgeon, admired Cook, "barely this side of idolatry".21 In his journal at the time of Cook's death he lamented:
To have come away at such a time as this & forsaken the body of Captn Cook cannot be thought on without feeling the keenest anguish and Indignation; the Men it must be said were most sincerely affected on this Occasion & had they been left to themselves would most certainly have brought him off, when they came along side they cryed out with Tears in their Eyes that they had lost their Father!22
Two years after Cook's death, Samwell declared, "His great Qualities I admired beyond any thing I can express - I gloried in him - and my heart bleeds to this day whenever I think of his Fate."23 Later still, in a work that eulogizes Cook in extravagant terms he includes:
these qualities rendered him the animating spirit of the expedition: in every situation, he stood unrivalled and alone; on him all eyes turned;24 he was our leading-star which at its setting, left us involved in darkness and despair... In temper he was somewhat hasty, but of a disposition most friendly, benevolent and humane... He was beloved by his people who looked up to him as to a father, and obeyed his commands with alacrity.25
Sir Maurice Holmes has rated David Samwell's account of Cook's death as, "the frankest and most reliable of all contemporary accounts"; and Zimmermann's and Samwell's appraisals as, "the best early appreciations of Cook."26
A Gunroom View - Henry Roberts
Other appreciations of Cook at the time of his death, include that of Master's Mate Henry Roberts of the Resolution:
[We] returned on board not being able to get the body of our lost Commander, whose death occasioned, concern, & sorrow, in every countenance; such an able Navigator, equalled by few and excelled by none, justly stiled father of his people from his great good care and attention, honored, & beloved by those who knew, or ever heard of him.27
A Gunroom View - George Gilbert
Midshipman George Gilbert portrayed conditions on board the Resolution at the same time as:
When on the return of the boats informing us of the Captains death; a general silence ensued throughout the ship, for the Space of near half an hour;-it appearing to us somewhat like a dream that we cou'd not reconcile our selves to for some time. Greif was visible in evry Countenance; Some expressing it by tears; and others by a kind of gloomy dejection: more easy to be conceived than described: for as all our hopes centred on him; our loss became irrepairable and the Sense of it was so deeply Impressed upon our minds as not to be forgot.28
A Gunroom View - John Trevenen
Midshipman John Trevenen supplies the picture of "Cook the despot". He tells how, on one occasion in Nootka Sound (in present-day British Columbia), he was one of several midshipmen who were required to row Cook around the sound, "not less than 30 miles during the day". They enjoyed such excursions for a variety of reasons, "altho' the labour of them was very great". In addition:
Capt. Cooke also on these occasions, would sometimes relax from his almost constant severity of disposition, & condescend now and then to converse familiarly with us. But it was only for a time, as soon as we entered the ship, he became again the despot.29
Of doubtful poetic value, Trevenen's poem, gives an authentic gunroom view of Cook as seen by one of his midshipmen:
O genius superior, in forming whom, nature
Had an eye to the moulding a great navigator,
And towards thy mids thou wert not very nice,
Declaring thou'dst have 'no more cats than catch mice,
'Not here do you come to see fashions, or folly, but
'To hold on the nippers, and row in a jolly-boat';
And though still wouldst thou send me when by the wind steering,
To haul out the weather mizen topsail reef earing,
Yet now I'll remember thy wholesome severity,
Or remember 'twas meant to give me dexterity.
No! rather I'll think on that happiest season,
When turned into thy boat's crew without rhyme or reason,
But proud of that office, we went a marooning,
And pulling 'gainst tide, or before wind spooning,
Sometimes we were shooting and sometimes surveying,
With pleasure still watching, with pleasure obeying,
Till pleased with our efforts, thy features relax,
And thou giv'st us thy game to take home on our backs.
O day of hard labour, O day of good living,
When TOOTE* was seized with the humour of giving-
When he clothed in good nature his look of authority,
And shook from his eyebrows their stern superiority.30
*Pacific Islanders' name for Cook
Trevenen also draws back the curtain to show that "different man"31 of the third voyage, who danced the quarterdeck in outbursts of rage at the shortcomings of different members of his crew, in a "heiva". As Trevenen explains:
Heiva the name of the dances of the Southern Islanders, which bore so great a resemblance to the violent motions and stampings on the Deck of Capt Cooke in the paroxysms of passion, into which he often threw himself upon the slightest occasion that they were universally known by the same name, & it was a common saying among both officers & people "The old boy has been tipping a heiva to such or such a one." 32
But Trevenen too, like other members of the crew of the Resolution was utterly deflated by the loss of his captain at Kealakekua Bay:
The fact was, that I, (as well as most others) had been so used to look up to him as our good genius, our safe conduct, & as a kind of superior being that I could not suffer myself, I did not dare, to think he could fall by the hands of the Indians over whose minds and bodies also, he had been accustomed to rule with uncontrouled sway.33
Trevenen's Cook takes on something of the nature of the "rogue", or "tyrant", or "taut hand" captain as depicted by Masefield. There are hints too, of the "Leviathan or kind of Sea-God whom the poor tars worship as the Indians do the Devil", as characterized by "the scurrilous Ward" or Ned Ward, author of, The Wooden World Dissected in the Character of a Ship of War, a satirical pamphlet originally published in 1707.34
A Gunroom View - John Elliott
Earlier comments from midshipmen on Cook as a commander, include those of John Elliott - Resolution, second voyage - who described Cook as, "An Exelent Seaman and Officer - Sober - Brave, Humane". He described how:
it was thought it would be quite a feather in a young man's Cap to go with CaptnCook, and it requir'd much Intrest to get out with him; My Uncle therefore determin'd to send me out with him in the Resolution. 35
Elliott's uncle took the boy to Sir Hugh Palliser to secure his patronage. Palliser in turn, passed the boy on to his nephew, Robert Palliser Cooper, who just happened to be the first lieutenant of the Resolution
. Cooper introduced young Elliott to Cook who promised to look after him and did. Elliott continues:
In the Early part of the Voyage, Captn Cook made all us young gentlemen, do their duty aloft the same as the Sailors, learning to hand, and reef the sails, and Steer the Ship, E[x]ercise Small arms thereby making us good Sailors as well as good Officers.36
After the second voyage, Elliott was appointed to an East India Company ship, prior to which, his preliminary examination before the directors of the Company, "consisted in their saying that they suppos'd I had been with Cook, that having been a pupil of his, I must be a good sailor."37
Beaglehole adds, "The training the young gentlemen got on Cook's ships was highly regarded in important circles."38
A Quarterdeck View - James Burney
James Burney took part in the second voyage through the influence of his father, Dr Charles Burney, a prominent figure in London's musical circles, who was a friend of Lord Sandwich. The young Burney was given a berth on the Resolution as an A.B. with promise of promotion as soon as a vacancy occurred, he having previously passed his examination for lieutenant. Cook found him "very deserving", and when the first lieutenant of the Adventure had to be invalided home from Capetown, Burney was promoted to second lieutenant of that ship.39 His sister Fanny, was later to describe Cook as, "the most moderate, humane, and gentle circumnavigator that ever went out upon discoveries",40an opinion that her brother had some input in forming, no doubt. Burney must have enjoyed his service under Cook and Furneaux. After the second voyage, while serving as first lieutenant on the frigate Cerebus on the American station, he heard that Cook was fitting out for a third voyage. He applied to the Admiralty for permission to return to England and serve again under Cook. Dr Burney again used his influence with the Earl of Sandwich, who sent an order to the commander-in-chief of the American station to send Burney home. The order having been complied with, James Burney was then appointed first lieutenant of the Discovery under Captain Clerke.41
A Quarterdeck View - James King
James King, second lieutenant of the Resolution under Cook in 1776; first lieutenant after the death of Cook when Clerke succeeded to the captaincy in February 1779; in command of the Discovery from August 1779 till the end of the third voyage; described Cook as, "a dear and honoured friend".42 In his last tribute to him he declared:
The qualities of his mind were of the same hardy, vigorous kind with those of his body. His understanding was strong and perspicacious. His judgment in whatever related to the services he was engaged in, quick and sure. His designs were bold and manly; and both in the conception and in the mode of execution bore evident marks of a great original genius. His courage was cool and determined, and accompanied by an admirable presence of mind in the moment of danger. His manners were plain and unaffected. His temper might perhaps have been justly blamed as subject to hastiness and passion, had not these been disarmed by a disposition the most benevolent and humane.'43
Attesting to Cook's drive and determination, King maintained:
No incidental temptation could detain him for a moment; even those intervals of recreation, which sometimes unavoidably occurred, and were looked for by us with a longing that persons who have experienced the fatigues, will readily excuse, were submitted to by him with a certain impatience, whenever they could not be employed in making further provision for the more effectual prosecution of his designs.44
This opinion is backed by Trevenen, who adds:
This indefatigability was a leading feature of his Character. If he failed in, or could no longer pursue, his first great object, he immediately began to consider how he might be more useful in prosecuting some inferior one. procrastination and irresolution he was a stranger to. Action was life to him & repose a sort of death.45
A Quarterdeck View - Charles Clerke
Charles Clerke may be justly described as one of the most-committed of Cook's "followers". He entered the Navy in 1755. He was in the mizzen-top of the Bellona in 1761 when the mast was shot away, he being the only survivor from those who fell overboard as a result. He sailed around the world with Byron in the Dolphin - June 1764 to May 1766. He joined the Endeavour as a master's mate in 1768 and when the first lieutenant, Zachary Hicks died on 26 May 1771, Cook appointed Clerke third lieutenant, "he being a young Man extremely well qualified for that station."46 The Admiralty later confirmed the appointment, commissioning him on 31 July 1771. In November of that year, Clerke was appointed second lieutenant of H.M.S. Drake which ship, had its name changed to H.M.S. Resolution. Committed to sail again with Cook on the second voyage, Clerke turned down an offer from Banks to sail with him on a trip to Iceland:
Resolution at Sheerness
31 May 1772
I yesterday receiv'd your favour and indeed am very sorry, I'm not to have the honour of attending you the other bout [boat]: Am exceedingly oblig'd to you, my good Sir, for your kind concern on my account; but have stood too far on this tack to think of putting about with any kind of credit...
Yr Highly Oblig'd & Humble Servant
[signed] Chas Clerke.47
After serving faithfully and well on the Resolution as second lieutenant during the second voyage, he was appointed captain of the Discovery for the third voyage, a position he held until that fateful 14 February 1779, when he assumed command of the Resolution and the whole expedition; only to succumb on the following 22 August to the consumption that had been plaguing him all the voyage. Beaglehole's opinion that Clerke, "had the highest admiration for Cook, amounting indeed to devotion",48 is irrefutable.
An Admiral's View - Sir Hugh Palliser
Which brings the story to Palliser's panegyric. In 1777 Sir Hugh bought a very large house, "The Vache", in Chalfont St. Giles, Buckinghamshire.49 In the grounds, to the north across a field, facing the front door, he erected a plinth surmounted by a globe, which in turn was surrounded by a castellated wall.50 On all four sides of the plinth is an inscription which begins:
TO THE MEMORY OF
CAPTAIN JAMES COOK
The ablest and most renowned
Navigator this or any country
The whole text, which might perhaps, be described as Palliser's "Ode to Cook", is remarkable as being a paean from a senior officer (vice-admiral), to a junior officer (captain). There can be few, if any, other such hymns of praise, from a senior officer to a junior officer in British military or naval history. From the "Ode", Palliser's description of Cook as a naval captain51 reads:
He possessed in an eminent degree, all the
Qualifications requisite for his profession
And his great undertakings; together with the
Amiable and worthy qualifications of the best of men,
Cool and deliberate in judging-sagacious
In determining-active in executing-steady,
Persevering, and enterprising-vigilance and
Unremitting caution, unsubdued by labour,
Difficulties, or disappointments, marked his
Character. He was fertile in expedients,
Never wanting in presence of mind, always
Self-possessed, and commanding the full use
Of a sound understanding.
Mild, just, but exact in discipline, he
Was a father to his people, who were
Attached to him from affection, and
Obedient from confidence.
He explored the southern hemisphere to
A much higher latitude than had ever
Been reached before, and with fewer accidents
Than frequently befall those who navigate
The coast of this island.
By his benevolent and unabating attentions
To the welfare of his ship's company, he
Discovered and introduced a system
For the preservation of the health of seamen
On long voyages, which has proved
Wonderfully effacious ; for in his second
Voyage round the world, which continued
Upwards of three years, he lost only
One man by distemper out of one hundred and
Eighteen, of which his ships' company consisted
The inscription ends:
"Virtutis uberrimum alimentum est honos"
VAL MAXIMUS, lib.2. Cap.6.52
Which translates as, "Honour is a most productive nourishment for virtue". It is a quotation from the Roman, Valerius Maximus, Book II, Chapter 6, in which, while discussing the Athenian statesman Herakles, and the desire of Athenian citizens to crown both him and other prominent statesmen with a crown of olive leaves, he makes the point quoted.53
In A Voyage to the Pacific Ocean, the official account of the third voyage, published, "by order of the Lord Commissioners of the Admiralty",54 there is another eulogy on Cook. It is contained in the "Introduction", the wording of which, is identical in many parts, to Palliser's "Ode", including the title and the quotation from Valerius Maximus. It omits some of the statements on Palliser's plinth, but includes another paragraph which reads:
The death of this eminent and valuable man was a loss to mankind in general; and particularly to be deplored by every nation that respects useful accomplishments, that honours science, and loves the benevolent and amiable affections of the heart. It is still more to be deplored by this country, which may justly boast of having produced a man hitherto unequalled for nautical talents; and that sorrow is further aggravated by the reflection, that his country was deprived of this ornament by the enmity of a people, from whom indeed, it might have been dreaded, but from whom it was not deserved. For, actuated always by the most attentive care and tender compassion for the savages in general, this excellent man was ever assiduously endeavouring, by kind treatment, to dissipate their fears, and court their friendship; overlooking their thefts and treacheries, and frequently interposing, at the hazard of his life, to protect them from the sudden resentment of his own injured people.55
Palliser erected his Cook memorial in 1781.56
That he himself, wrote the words of the text, is nowhere explicitly stated. Who actually composed the words on the plinth remains an open question.
A Voyage to the Pacific Ocean was published four years later. The tribute to Cook therein, may be taken as the Admiralty's testimonial to Cook. It contains much of the text of the Palliser plinth. Anthony Murray-Oliver has attributed the authorship of the "Introduction" to A Voyage to the Pacific Ocean to The Hon. John Forbes, Admiral of the Fleet,57 but this is a doubtful ascription. The "Introduction" was more likely to have been the compilation of an Admiralty clerk, from material supplied by Palliser; if not a revised version of the 1781 text, by Palliser himself. Whatever the authorship, the Palliser/Admiralty laudations of Cook may be seen as having a share, in beginning that conscious and deliberate heroizing process, that Bernard Smith has so vividly described.58
Allan S. Arlidge
- [Marra, John], Journal of the Resolution's Voyage in 1772,1773, 1774 and 1775, London, 1775, pp. 21-22.
- Marra's punishments will be covered in a later article. For the authorship of the Journal of the Resolution's Voyage, see J.C. Beaglehole, The Journals of Captain James Cook, vol. II, (hereafter either Journals, I, II or III), pp. cliii-v and 961-2.
- Historical Records of New South Wales (HRNSW), vol. 1, pt. 1, pp. 357-58.
- Journals II, p. 914.
- Rodger, N.A.M, The Wooden World, London, 1986, pp. 119-20.
- See previous article, "An Analysis of Cook's Time in New Zealand", in Cook's Log, Vol. 26, no.4 (2003), p. 3.
- Rodger, op. cit., p. 121.
- He did. See Beaglehole, 'On the Character of Captain Cook', in The Geographical Journal, vol. 122, pt.4, 1956, p. 419. See also Anders Sparrman, A Voyage round the World with Captain Cook in H.M.S. Resolution, London, 1944, pp. 51-52, cited in Journals II, p. 200.
- Zimmermann, Heinrich, Reise un die Welt mit Captain Cook, Manheim, 1781. Translated as, Zimmermann's Account of the Third Voyage, (Tewsley translation), Alexander Turnbull Library Bulletin No.2, Wellington, p. 41.
- Howay, F.W. (ed.), Zimmermann's Captain Cook, Toronto, 1930, p. 13.
- Journals III, p. ccvi.
- Zimmermann's Account, p. 42.
- The Anonymous Journal-A Journal of a Voyage Round the World in His Majesty's Ship Endeavour, attributed to James Maria Matra (or Magra), London, 1771, p. 101.
- Journals I, pp. 247-48. Cook's account records the incident from a different angle and makes no mention of any dispute with the officer of the watch.
- ibid., p. 323.
- ibid., p. 347, n.5.
- Antonio Giordano (publisher), The Anonymous Journal (facsimile of 1771 edn.), Adelaide, 1975, pp. ix-x.
- See The Anonymous Journal, p. 90.
- See Journals I, p. cxlvi and Giordano, p. xiv.
- For Beaglehole's many references to Matra [Magra] and "Anon 71", see Journals I, Index.
- The phrase is Beaglehole's, Journals III, p. lxxiv.
- Samwell, David, Journal. Cited in Journals III, p. 1200.
- Samwell, A Narrative of the Death of Captain Cook, London, 1781. Cited in Journals III, p. lxxxvi.
- Cf. Zimmermann above.
- Samwell, Captain Cook and Hawaii, London, 1786, p. 31.
- Holmes, Sir Maurice, Captain James Cook R.N., F.R.S: A Bibliographical Excursion, London, 1952, pp. 17 and 46.
- See Journals III, p. 551, n.1.
- ibid., p. 303, n.2.
- Cited Journals III, pp. cxxii-iii.
- The description is that of Sir James Watts, in 'Medical Aspects and Consequences of Cook's Voyages' in Fisher and Johnston, Captain James Cook and His Times, Canberra 1979, p. 155.
- Cited in Journals III, p. cliii.
- Cited in ibid., p. 558 n, 1.
- See Masefield, Sea Life in Nelson's Time, London, 1905 and 1920, pp. 57-58, and Rodger, The Wooden World, p. 13.
- From Elliott's Memoirs, cited in Journals II p. xxxvi.
- From ibid., cited in Journals II, p. xxxvii.
- See Hooper, Beverley (ed.), With Captain Cook in the Antarctic and the Pacific, Canberra 1975, p. 2.
- Diary and Letters of Madame D'Arblay [Fanny Burney], London, 1904, p. 318.
- Burney, Captain James, A Chronological History of the North-Eastern Voyages of Discovery, London, 1819, vol. I, p. 202.
- King, James, A Voyage to the Pacific Ocean, London, 1784, vol. III, p. 46. Part-cited by Sir Frank Dyson, Astronomer Royal, in 'Captain Cook as an astronomer', A paper read at the Evening Meeting of The Geographical Society on 17 December 1928, printed in The Geographical Journal, vol. 73, 1929, pp. 117-22.
- ibid., p. 49.
- Cited in Journals III, p. 427, n.6.
- Journals I, p. 472.
- Banks Papers, 2, f.2, Mitchell Library, cited in Journals II, pp. 936-37.
- Journals I, p. cxxxi.
- For a description, see The Vache and its Owners, n.d., a booklet commissioned by The Vache Club, Chalfont St. Giles, Buckinghamshire, England, containing a short history of The Vache by Monica Harcourt-Smith. The Vache has been used as a staff college by the British National Coal Board since 1955.
- See The Geographic Journal, vol. 72, no.1, 1929, pp. 100-122 for photographs of the globe and plinth and a note thereon. 'The text on the plinth was first printed in full by Commander J.A. Rupert-Jones in the Hydrographic Annual, 1913.' The Alexander Turnbull Library, also has good black and white photographs of the globe and plinth. See also, Cook's Log, vol. 7, no. 4 (1984), p. 293 and vol. 26, no.4 (2003), pp. 12-13.
- If indeed, the words are his.
- See Campbell, Vice-Admiral Gordon, V.C., D.S.O., Captain James Cook R.N., F.R.S., London, 1936, pp. 304-5 for the complete eulogy.
- Translation and explanation kindly supplied by Professor C.W. Dearden, Professor of Classics, Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand.
- See the title page of A Voyage to the Pacific Ocean, undertaken by command of His Majesty...In three Volumes, Vol. I and II written by Captain James Cook, F.R.S., Vol. III by Captain James King, L.L.D. and F.R.S., London 1784.
- ibid., vol. I, pp. lxxxvii-ix.
- Information on a postcard. What other evidence exists of the date of erection?
- Murray-Oliver, Anthony, (compiler), Captain Cook's Artists in the Pacific. 1769-1779, Christchurch, New Zealand, 1969, p. ix.
- Smith, Bernard, 'Cook's Posthumous Reputation' in Fisher & Johnston, op. cit., pp. 159-85.
Originally published in Cook's Log, page 5, volume 27, number 4 (2004).